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Performance Comparison of Carbon Nanotubes with Copper and Aluminium as Winding Material in Transformer
Objectives: Transformers are used in almost every industry; therefore further improvement in their efficiency is always desirable. The objective of this work is to study the potential of Carbon Nanotubes to replace copper/aluminum in transformers. Methods/Analysis: In this work, FEM (Finite Element Method) technique based planar model of an aluminum-wound transformer is developed in FEMM software. The magnetic and steady state heat flow analysis of this transformer has been carried out. Then, the thermal and electrical properties of aluminum windings are replaced with that of new carbon based nanomaterial; Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) and copper respectively to measure the effect on the performance of the transformer. Theoretical electrical conductivity of CNTs, which is much higher than that of macroscopic yarns till date, has been used. Findings: The comparison of maximum winding I2R losses and maximum winding temperature rise, when winding material is taken as aluminum, copper and CNT respectively, has been done. Also, weight of the conductor required has been compared. Maximum winding I2R losses and maximum winding temperature rise obtained in case of CNTs are lower than that in case of copper and aluminum. Weight of the conductor is also less than copper/aluminum. Application/Improvement: Previous work on use of CNT windings in transformer have demonstrated that it works in accordance with the classical theory of transformers. In this work, the effect on transformer winding losses and temperature rise has been analyzed when conventional winding materials are replaced by CNTs.
CNT, Electrical Conductivity, FEMM, Losses, Temperature Rise, Transformer.
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