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Velocity Analysis of a DC Brushed Encoder Motor using Ziegler-Nichols Algorithm: A Case of an Automated Guided Vehicle


  • Department of Mechatronics Engineering, SAL College of Engineering, Ahmedabad - 380060, Gujarat, India
  • Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad - 382424, Gujarat, India
  • G.H. Patel College of Engineering and Technology, VV Nagar, Vidhyanagar - 388120, Gujarat, India


Objectives: The use of “Automated Guided Vehicles” (AGV) has emerged for automation in material handling applications. These AGVs are equipped with DC brushed/ brushless motors with encoders. The encoders feed the actual shaft position of a DC motor to the microcontroller, which converts the shaft position into the angular velocity. This is called as velocity analysis of DC encoder motor. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The first phase of paper focuses on the hardware of AGV and interfacing a controller with MATLAB. In the second phase, the transfer function of the system, type of the system, order of the system, steady state and transient analysis are shown. In the final phase of the paper, system’s response with P, PI and PID controllers are shown with the help of Ziegler-Nicholas (Z-N algorithm) algorithm (Real time and simulation both) with respect to step input. Findings: Industries have different types of layout for production. Some has process layout whereas some has plant layout. According to the production capacity and type of the layout, industries design the path for AGVs (for material handling). Generally AGVs do loading and unloading stuff, which is very much useful as far as smooth production is concerned. Some companies and researchers have designed AGVs with different specifications. If AGV comes out of the track due to irregular velocity, leads the plant to higher lead time and it may damage the productivity chain. To overcome this problem a metrology for doing velocity analysis for different controllers and algorithms are shown. Application/Improvements: This algorithm and control strategy helps AGV to move with constant velocity. It also protects AGV from accident or collision, which directly affects the productivity and better material handling process.


Arduino Controller, DC Brushed Encoder Motor, MATLAB, P, PI and PID Controller, Real Time Data Acquisition, Z-N Algorithm.

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