Total views : 279

Degradation of Some Dyes with Cobalt-Containing Oxidative System


  • Belgorod State University, Belgorod, Russian Federation


Objectives: The objective of this study is to investigate oxidation of three dyes: Indigo carmine, methyl violet and 2, 4-dinitrophenol by two-component system Co2+-H2O2 further analyzing behavior of Cobalt in Fenton-like processes. Method: Oxidative degradation was effected in aqueous solutions of dyes under static conditions. Altering concentrations of substrates were analyzed spectrophoto metrically. Dynamic light scattering was used to evaluate the condition of Cobalt in the solution. The products of oxidative degradation were studied applying the method of nuclear magnetic resonance. Findings: The study shows that hydrogen peroxide in presence of ions Co2+ is capable of oxidizing indigo carmine. The sulfate ions in the system do not affect the kinetics of the oxidation process. It has been found that oxidation supposedly occurs following the radical mechanism similar to the processes observed in the Fenton system (Fe2+ - H2O2). However, the range of pH values that makes oxidation possible differs considerably from the operating range of the Fenton system: With Cobalt ions, the process runs at pH>6. It has been established that intensive oxidation of methyl violet and 2, 4-dinitrophenol also starts when рН value increases up to 6.6-6.8. The formation of Cobalt-containing aggregates of Cobalt hydroxides in the process of oxidative degradation of indigo carmine has been observed for the first time, i.e. the process occurs in ultra micro heterogeneous system. It has been shown that in presence of Cobalt, the substrates are not oxidized in full; the products of oxidation are represented by a complicated set of organic compounds. Applications/Improvements: In practice, functioning at higher рН values is an important advantage of the Cobalt-containing system as compared to the iron-containing one.


Cobalt Ions, Hydrogen Peroxide, Oxidative Degradation.

Full Text:

 |  (PDF views: 287)


  • Barb WG, Baxendale JH, George P, Hargrave KR. Reactions of ferrous and ferric ions with hydrogen peroxide. Nature. 1949 Apr; 163:692–4.
  • Verma P, Baldrian P, Nerud F. Discoloration of structurally different synthetic dyes using Co (II)/ascorbic acid/hydrogen peroxide system. Chemosphere. 2003; 50(8):975–9.
  • Long X, Yang Z, Wang H, Chen M, Peng K, Zeng Q, Xu A. Selective degradation of orange II with the Cobalt (II) – Bicarbonate - Hydrogen Peroxide System. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research. 2012 Aug; 51(37):11998–2003.
  • Burg A, Shusterman I, Kornweitz H, Meyerstein D. Three H2O2 molecules are involved in the Fenton-like reaction between Co (H2O)62+ and H2O2. Dalton Transactions. 2014 May; 43:9111–5.
  • Nasiruddin KM, Bhutto S. Kinetic study of the oxidative discoloration of xylenol orange by hydrogen peroxide in micellar medium. Journal of Chilean Chemistry Society. 2010; 55(2):170–5.
  • Strlič M, Kolar J, Šelih V, Kocar D, Pihlar B. A comparative study of several transition metals in Fenton-like reaction systems at circum-neutral pH. Acta Chim Slov. 2003; 50(4):619–32.
  • Bokare AD, Choi W. Review of iron-free Fenton-like systems for activating H2O2 in advanced oxidation processes. Journal of Hazard Materials. 2014 Jun; 275:121–35.
  • Goi A, Trapido M. Hydrogen peroxide photolysis, Fenton reagent and photo-Fenton for the degradation of nitrophenols: A comparative study. Chemosphere. 2002 Feb; 46(6):913–22.
  • Hashemian S, Tabatabaee M, Gafari M. Fenton oxidation of methyl violet in aqueous solution. Journal of Chemistry. 2012 Aug; 2013:1–6.
  • Erokhin KS, Tikhova AA, Lebedeva OE. Ferrum condition in Fenton and Ruff’s systems in the course of indigo carmine and nitrophenol oxidation at different pH values. Advances Environmental Biology. 2014 Aug; 8(13):17–9.
  • Solovyov AA, Pashina MA, Lebedeva OE. Oxidative destruction of dinitrophenols by Fenton’s reagent in the presence of inorganic salts. Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry. 2007 Feb; 80(2):275–8.
  • Kremer ML. The Fenton reaction. Dependence of the rate on pH. Journal of Physical Chemistry A. 2003 Feb; 107(11):1734–41.
  • Siedlecka EM, Stepnowski P. Phenols degradation by Fenton reaction in presence of chlorides and sulfates. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies. 2005 Feb; 14(6):823–8.
  • Tikhova AA, Glukhareva NA, Lebedeva OE. Oxidative degradation of polyglycols by the ruff’s system in the aqueous solutions. Russian Journal of General Chemistry. 2014 Sep; 84(9):1806–9.
  • Yi Shen Y, Zhanga Z, Xiao K. Evaluation of Cobalt oxide, copper oxide and their solid solutions as heterogeneous catalysts for Fenton-degradation of dye contaminants. RSC Advances. An International Journal to Further the Chemical Sciences. 2015 Oct; 5:91846–54.
  • Mashaly HM, Abdelghaffar RA, Kamel MM, Youssef BM. Dyeing of polyester fabric using nano disperse dyes and improving their light fastness using ZnO nano powder. IJST. 2014; 7(7).
  • Youssef BM, Ahmed MHM, Arief MMH, Mashaly HM, Abdelghaffar RA, Mahmoud SA. Synthesis and application of functional (anti-uv) Azo-dyes based on γ-acid on wool fabrics. IJST. 2014; 7(7).


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.