Total views : 220

Remineralization Assessment of Early Childhood Caries using QLF-D: A Randomized Clinical Trial


  • Department of Dental Hygiene, The graduate school of Namseoul University, Cheonan - 31020, Korea, Republic of
  • Department of Dental Hygiene, Namseoul University, Cheonan - 31020, Korea, Republic of


Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess remineralization effects after applying fluoride varnish on children with white spot in maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth using quantitative light-induced fluorescence. Methods/ Statistical Analysis: 56 participants (2–5 years old) were randomly divided into the Fluor protector group (n=28) and the FluorDose group (n=28). An oral examination was performed at baseline, and QLF-D was used for observations on early caries lesion. After applying the assigned fluoride varnish, QLF-D images were reacquired after 2 and 4 weeks. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and t-test with PASW statistics 18.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Findings: Both groups showed a significant decrease in ΔF value from baseline to after 4 weeks (p < 0.05), at which time, Groups I and II showed a decrease of 5.88% and 1.71%, respectively. There was not statistically significant difference between group I and group II. According to QLF-D scores (0, 1, and 2), all groups showed the highest remineralization rate at score 2 after 2 weeks fluoride application. In the results from after 4 weeks, Group I showed the highest remineralization rate at score 2 (13.2%), while Group II showed the highest remineralization rate at score 1 (9.96%). Improvements/Applications: Viscosity and concentration of the fluoride varnish showed that not to affect the remineralization effect. QLF-D is thought to be useful device in observation of early carious lesion in ECC. *


Early childhood caries, Fluoride varnish, QLF-D, Remineralization, White spot.

Full Text:

 |  (PDF views: 246)


  • Drury TF, Horowitz AM, Ismail AI, Maertens MP, Rozier RG, Selwitz RH. Diagnosing and reporting early childhood caries for research purposes. Journal of Public Health Dentistry. 1999 Sep; 59(3):192–7.
  • Graves RC, Abernathy JR, Disney JA, Stamm JW, Bohannan HM. University of North Carolina Caries Risk Assesment study. Ⅲmultiple factors in caries prevalence. Journal of Public Health Dentistry. 1991 Sep; 51(3):134–43.
  • Song JH, Kim JW, Jang KT, Kim CC, Hahn SH, Lee SH. Remineralization effect of commercially available anticariogenic products on artificial caries lesion using QLF. Journal of the Korean Academy of Pediatric Dentistry. 2008 May; 35(2):287–96.
  • Beltran-Aguilar ED, Estupinan-day S, Baez R. Analysis of prevalence and trends of dental caries in the Americans between the 1970s and 1990s. International Dental Journal. 1999 Dec; 49(6):322–9.
  • Farhadian N, Miresmaeili A, Eslami B, Mehrabi S. Effect of a fluoride varnish on the enamel demineralization around brackets: an in-vivo study. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics. 2008 Apr; 133(S4):S95–98.
  • Kirkegaard E. In vitro fluoride uptake in human dental enamel from various fluoride solutions. Caries Research. 1997; 11(1):16–23.
  • Featherstone JD, Glena R, Shariati M, Shields CP. Dependence of in vitro demineralization of apatite and remineralization of dental enamel on fluoride concentration. Journal of Dental Research. 1990 Feb; 69(S2):620–5.
  • Kim HE. Quantitative light-lnduced fluorescence: A potential tool for dental hygiene process. Journal of Dental Hygiene Science. 2013; 13(2):115–24.
  • Alammari MR, Smith PW, De Josselin de Jong E, Higham SM. Quantitative Light-Induced Fluorescence(QLF): A tool for early occlusal dental caries detection and supporting decision making in vivo. Journal of Dentistry. 2013 Feb; 41(2):127–32.
  • Edgar WM, Pretty IA, Higham SM. Detection of in vitro demineralization of primary teeth using quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF). International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry. 2002 May; 12(3):158–67.
  • Shi XQ, Tranaeus S, Angmar-Mansson B. Comparison of QLF and DIAGNOdent for quantification of smooth surface caries. Caries Research. 2001 Jan-Feb; 35(1):21–6.
  • Featherstone JDB. The science and practice of caries prevention. The Journal of the American Dental Association. 2000 Jul; 131(7):887–99.
  • Lee SY, Lim SR, Cho YS. Remineralisation Effect of Fluoride on Early Caries Lesions using a Quantitative Light-Induced Fluorescence-Digital (QLF-D). Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2015 Jan; 8(S1):457–61.
  • Kim HE, Kwon HK, Kim BI. Recovery percentage of remineralization according to severity of early caries. American Journal of Dentistry. 2013 Jun; 26(3):132–6.
  • Stookeyn GK. Quantitative light fluorescence: a technology for early monitoring of the caries process. Dental Clinics of North America. 2005 Oct; 49(4):753–70.
  • Ellwood RP, Goma J, Pretty IA. Caries clinical trial methods for the assessment of oral care products in the 21st century. Advance in Dental Research. 2012 Sep; 24(2):32–5.
  • Heinrich-Weltzien R, Kuuhnisch J, van der Veen M, de Josselin de Jong E, Stoosser L. Quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLFTM)-A potential method for the dental practitioner. Quintessence International. 2003 Mar; 34(3):181–8.
  • Adriaens ML, Dermaut LR, Verbeeck RMH. The use of fluor protector, a fluoride varnish, as a caries prevention method under orthodontic bands. European journal of orthodontics. 1990 Aug; 12(3):316–9.
  • Ogaard B, Larsson E, Henriksson T, Birkhed D, Bishara SE. Effects of combined application of antimicrobial and fluoride varnishes in orthodontic patients. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics. 2001 Jul; 120(1):28–35.
  • Jih MK, Lee SH, Lee NY. Effect of Polymer Adhesive Film Supplemented 5% NaF on Enamel Remineralization. The Journal of the Korean Academy of Pedtatric Dentistry. 2014; 41(3):218–24.
  • Lee EH, Kim JS, Yoo SH. Remineralization effect of sodium fluoride varnish on white lesion by application intervals. The Journal of the Korean Academy of Pediatric Dentistry. 2010; 37(4):403–11.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.