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Symmetry and Asymmetry of Kinematic Structure of Natural Human Locomotion
Background/Objectives: Study of symmetry in the structure and functioning of human body does not have a long-term history. In 1848 L. Pasteur discovered symmetric interrelations, thereby laying the groundwork of the molecular asymmetry doctrine, which was the first stage in the intensive study of laterality of organic compounds. References to correlation between symmetry and asymmetry are fragmentary in human physiology. Modern literature does not analyze the study of kinematic structure of a human being motion as a symmetry object. This article is aimed at determining the occurrence of dynamic symmetry and dynamic asymmetry of the kinematic structure of natural locomotions in the course of sports perfection and individual development of a human being in the ontogeny. Methods: Modern methods of registration of kinematic characteristics offer the possibility of objective assessment of the kinematic structure form of natural locomotions. This circumstance enables to apply the systematic and symmetrical method of cognition of biological processes for studying kinematic structure of human motion. Findings: Study of kinematic structure of natural locomotions has been carried out in this article as exemplified by squatting of powerlifters and children aged 5 and 6. Kinematic characteristics were registered on the basis of optical system of three-dimensional video analysis of movements. “Movement Video Analysis” software enables registration of change of angular movements in joints. It was found that spatiotemporal movements in joints during squats done by powerlifters occur in the form of dynamic symmetry and dynamic asymmetry. Dynamic symmetry of joint movement is characterized by kinematic structure, when spatiotemporal angular movement during joint extension is a reverse spatiotemporal angular movement during flexion. Violation of dynamic symmetry reveals in case of increase in poundage by more than 60% of the maximum. In the course of individual development dynamic symmetry of angular movements in ankle, knee and hip joints is formed in a heterotropic mode. Dynamic symmetry of spatiotemporal angular movements in knee joints is formed by six years of age. Dynamic asymmetry is characteristic of this and angular movement in hip and ankle joint. Application: The obtained data will enable to develop methods for assessing quality of realization of human movement skills on the basis of systematic and symmetrical approach.
Kinematic Structure, Natural Locomotions, Symmetry/Asymmetry.
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