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Evaluating Land Surface Models in WRF Simulations over DMIC Region


  • Centre for Atmospheric Science, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas − 110016, New Delhi, India
  • Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, National Institute of Technology Rourkela, Rourkela − 769008, Odisha, India
  • Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, National Institute of Technology Rourkela, Rourkela − 769008 Odisha, India
  • Amity Centre for Ocean-Atmospheric Science and Technology, Amity University Gurugram, Gurugram − 122413, Haryana, India


Objectives: To evaluate the four land-surface parameterizations viz. Thermal, Noah, RUC and Pleim-Xiu embedded within Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model over Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor (DMIC). Methods: WRF model simulations are carried out for five different cases over DMIC region by considering a nested configuration with outer and inner domain horizontal resolutions 30 km and 10km respectively. The performance of the considered land-surface parameterizations or LSMs are compared with the real time observations and statistical analysis is evaluated using probability density function, cumulative density function as well as the root mean square error. Findings: The analysis of results indicates that the LSMs are quite sensitive to the forecasting of the near surface and boundary layer characteristics. Performance of all land-surface schemes is reasonably good for the prediction of near surface temperature and 10 m wind speed for the five cases. However, the errors are found to be significant for Relative Humidity (RH). On the other hand, sensitiveness of different land-surface parameterizations appears to be less important when there are extreme weather events. It is realized that the model error increases with increase in intensity of rainfall and extremity of the events for prediction of precipitation. Pleim-Xiu scheme is found to be performing better in dry case as well as moderately heavy rainfall case, whereas Noah scheme performs efficiently during hotter and colder scenarios. Additional monthly simulations agreed with these findings reasonably well. Thus, it is inferred that Noah and Pleim-Xiu land-surface parameterizations may be used for WRF simulations over DMIC region as per the requirements in view of the consideration of urban or nonurban aspects. Application/Improvements: The present study would be helpful for understanding the behavior of WRF model in view of improving the forecasting of different meteorological parameters over DMIC region.


DMIC, Noah, Pleim-Xiu, RUC, Thermal, WRF

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