Total views : 254

On-Street Parking Demand Estimation in Urban CBD using FI and CF Model: A Case Study – Kolkata, India


  • Civil Engineering Department, NIT Silchar, Silchar, Assam - 788010, India


Objectives:To estimate the on-street parking demand in the urban Central Business Districts (CBDs). Methods/Statistical Analysis: To achieve the goal, the study formulates two parking demand estimation models i.e., the fee index (FI) model and the cost factor (CF ) model, based on regression analysis using SPSSStatistical Package for the Social Science. FI Model estimates the on-street parking demand where the transit system is absent. On the other hand CF model estimates the demand by considering the mode shift from the private vehicle (PV) users to the public transit (PT ). Findings: Priority wise requirements for selecting PT are found out in this survey. The existing demand in the both selected CBDs of Kolkata, viz. Dalhousie and Gariahat is found to be much higher than the present parking supply. FI Model shows that, the demand will satisfy the existing supply if unit FI can be achieved. CF model explain that, the transit fare need to be increased by 52% and 26% for Dalhousie and Gariahat area respectively to meet the demand with the existing supply. It is also found out that, the on-street demand is less in transit oriented CBDs. The forecasted demand is reduced by 69% and 71% and by 63% and 59% than the present demand using CF model and the FI model respectively. In this study, it has been attempted to evaluate the on-street parking demand and such type of works has not been found out by the authors particularly in India which make it a pioneer study for others. Application/Improvements: The users need to be shifted from PV to PT immediately and the government must take necessary actions to introduce sufficient transit service to counter the on-street parking problem.


CBD, On-Street Parking Demand, Parking Demand, Parking Supply, Parking Demand Model.

Full Text:

 |  (PDF views: 177)


  • Zeng YE, Changping LI, Ning GU. Research on different parking supply in Beijing. Journal of Transportation Systems Engineering and Information Technology. 2009 Dec; 9(6):47–51. Available from: Crossref
  • Kolkata CDPA report, City assessment: Analysis of the existing situation, chapter1. Crossref
  • Alawin M, Al-Hamdi M, Alomeri M. Determinants of Electricity Demand in Jordan. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2016 May; 9(15):1–7 Available from: Crossref
  • Vikram V, Ajay T, Chandra S, Malik AK. A Trade Credit Inventory Model with Multivariate Demand for NonInstantaneous Decaying products. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2016 May;9(15):1–6. Available from: Crossref
  • Churchill GA, Surprenant C. An investigation into the determinants of customer satisfaction. Journal of marketing research. 1982 Nov;19(4):491–504. Available from: Crossref
  • Cadotte ER, Robert BW, Roger LJ. Expectations and mode shift in models of consumer satisfaction. Journal of Marketing Research, 1987; 24:305–14. Available from: Crossref
  • Fornell C. A national customer satisfaction barometer: The Swedish experience. The Journal of Marketing. 1992 Jan; 56(1): .6–21. Available from: Crossref
  • Oliver RL. A cognitive model of the antecedents and consequences of satisfaction decisions. Journal of marketing research. 1980 Nov; 17(4): 460–9. Available from: Crossref
  • Oliver RL, DeSarbo WS. Response determinants in satisfaction judgments. Journal of consumer research. 1988 Mar;14(4): 495–507 Available from: Crossref
  • Oliver RL. Satisfaction: A behavioral perspective on the consumer. Routledge. Newyork, 2014 Dec.
  • Tse DK, Wilton PC. Models of consumer satisfaction formation: An extension. Journal of marketing research. 1988 May; 25(2): 204–12. Aailable from: Crossref
  • Westbrook RA. Product/consumption-based affective responses and postpurchase processes. Journal of marketing research. 1987 Aug; 24(3): 258–70. Available from: Crossref
  • Steven EP. Transportation/land-use relationship: Public transit’s impact on land use. Journal of urban planning and development. 1999 Dec; 125(4): 135–51. Available from: Crossref
  • Stradling SG, Meadows ML, Beatty S. Helping drivers out of their cars Integrating transport policy and social psychology for sustainable change. Transport policy. 2000 Jul;7(3): 207–15. Available from: Crossref
  • Friman M, Edvardsson B, Gärling T. Frequency of negative critical incidents and satisfaction with public transport services. I. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services. 2001 Mar; 8(2): 95–104. Available from: Crossref Available from: Crossref
  • Lauren R, Friman M, Gärling T, Hartig T. Quality attributes of public transport that attract car users: A research review. Transport Policy. 2013 Jan; 25:119–27. Available from: Crossref
  • Friman M, Gärling T. Frequency of negative critical incidents and satisfaction with public transport services. II.
  • Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services. 2001 Mar; 8(2):105–14. Available from: Crossref Available from: Crossref
  • Pucher J, Korattyswaroopam N, Ittyerah N. The crisis of public transport in India: overwhelming needs but limited resources. Journal of Public Transportation. 2004;7(3): 1–20. Available from: Crossref Availale from: Crossref
  • Zhang X, Shao Y, Wu Y, Li X. Parking demnd in the Hich tech business district of urban. In Proceedings of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies. 2005; 5: 891–9. PMCid:PMC1550707
  • Maitra B, Dandapat S, Chintakayala P. Differences between the Perceptions of Captive and Choice Riders toward Bus Service Attributes and the Need for Segmentation of Bus Services in Urban India. Journal of Urban Planning and Development. 2014 May; 141(2).
  • Phanikumar CV, Maitra B. Valuing urban bus attributes: An experience in Kolkata. Journal of Public Transportation. 2006; 9(2): 1–19. Availale from: Crossref
  • Nelessen Associates, Parking study report, Journal Square. 2008. Available from: Crossref
  • Eriksson L. Car Users’ Switching to Public Transport for the Work Commute.Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. 2011; 1–32. PMCid:PMC3024212
  • Land tansport and authority. Code of practice for vehicle parking provision in developments. 2011; 1–80.
  • Wong SC, Tong CO, Lam WC, Fung RY. Development of parking demand models in Hong Kong. Journal of Urban Planning and Development. 2000 Jun; 126(2): 55–74. Available from: Crossref
  • Tong OC, Wong CS, Leung YS. Estimation of parking accumulation profiles from survey data, Transportation. 2004; 31: 183–202, Available from: Crossref
  • Mildura Rural City Council. The development of a local planning policy for vehicle parking in the CBD Area, Vehicle Parking Policy in the CBD Area. 2005.Available from: Crossref
  • Shoup DC. Cruising for parking. Transport Policy. 2006 Nov; 13: 479–86. Available from: Crossref
  • Regidor JR. A review of trip and parking generation rates in the Philippines. Philippine Engineering Journal. 2010 Jul;27(1): 1–262.
  • Rastogi R. validating stated parking duration of drivers in kota city. INDIA, May 2014.
  • Singh A, Sarkar PK. Determination of Congestion Cost in Central Business District of New Delhi: A Case Study. In Journal of the Indian Roads Congress 2009 Jul.
  • Parking Study-A report, City of La Crosse Wisconsin, Rich and Associates, Inc. 2009.
  • Qin H, Xiao Q, Guan H, Pan X. Analysis on the Parking demand of the Commercial Buildings Considering the Public Transport Accessibility. Nature and Science. 2010; 63–8.
  • Parking and transportation demand management master plan. University of California, Berkeley. 2011. Available from: Crossref
  • Abrm Associates, Traffic and Parking study, Shattuck and university traffic and parking Level_3_-_Land_Use_Division/2011-06-23%20Traffic%20 and%20Parking%20Study.pdf. Date Accessed: 23/06/2011.
  • Diallo A, Bourdeau JS, Morency C, Saunier N. Methodology of parking analysis. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering. 2015 Mar;42(4): 281–5. Available from: Crossref
  • Tiexin C, Miaomiao T, Ze M. The model of parking demand forecast for the urban CCD. Energy Procedia. 2012 Dec; 16: 1393–400. Available from: Crossref
  • Subramani T. Parking Study on Main Corridors in Major Urban Centre. International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER), ISSN. 2012; 2(3): 742–8.
  • Asiyanbola RA, Akinpelu AA. The challenges of onstreet parking in Nigerian Cities’ transportation routes. International Journal of Development and Sustainability. 2014; 4(20): 1–11.
  • Olorunfemi SO, Basorun JO. Appraisal of Regional Mobility in Lokoja, Nigeria. Journal of Society and Communication. 2013 Oct,
  • Marsden G. The evidence base for parking policies: A review. Transport policy. 2006 Nov;13(6): 447–57. Available from: Crossref
  • Madsen E, Mulalic I, Pilegaard N. A model for estimation of the demand for on-street parking. 2013 Dec; 1–24
  • Tong CO, Wong SC, Lau WW. A demand-supply equilibrium model for parking services in Hong Kong. HKIE Transactions. 2004 Jan;11(1): 48–53.
  • Hamre A, Buehler R. Commuter mode choice and free car parking, public transportation benefits, showers/lockers, and bike parking at work: Evidence from the Washington, DC Region. Journal of Public Transportation. 2014; 17(2):1–4. Available from: Crossref
  • Chakrabartty A, Gupta S. Estimation of Congestion Cost in the City of Kolkata - A Case Study. Current Urban Studies. 2015 May; 3(2): 1–10. Available from: Crossref
  • Zhang R, Zhu L. Curbside parking pricing in a city centre using a threshold. Transport Policy. 2016 Nov 30; 52:16–27. Available from: Crossref
  • Gatta V, Marcucci E. Behavioural implications of non-linear effects on urban freight transport policies: The case of retailers and transport providers in Rome. Case Studies on Transport Policy. 2016 Mar;4(1): 22–8. Available from: Crossref
  • Algers S, Hansen S, Tegner G. Role of waiting time, comfort, and convenience in modal choice for work trip. Transportation Research Record. 1975; (534): 1–29.
  • Axhausen KW, Beyerle A, Schumacher H. Choosing the type of parking: a stated preference approach. InUTSG Conference Paper, London. 1988 Jan; 1–18 PMid:3281506
  • Brown GR. Analysis of user preferences for system characteristics to cause a modal shift.TRIDthe TRIS and ITRD database. 1972; (417): 25–36.
  • Ergün G. Development of a downtown parking model. TRID the TRIS and ITRD database. 1971; (369): 118–34.
  • Galbraith RA, Hensher DA. Intra-metropolitan transferability of mode choice models. Journal of Transport Economics and Policy. 1982 Jan; 1–23.
  • May T, Jones D, Rigby J. Parking policy assessment: The contribution of a parking location model in York. Traffic engineering and control. 1989; 30(5): 251–6.
  • Polak J, Axhausen KW. CLAMP: A macroscopic simulation model for parking policy analysis. University of Oxford Transport Studies Unit, 1989.
  • Talvitie A. Comparison of probabilistic modal-choice models: estimation methods and system inputs. Highway Research Record. 1972; (392): 111–20.
  • Whitlock EM. Use of linear programming to evaluate alternative parking sites. Highway Research Record. 1973; (444):9–19.
  • Austin TW, Lee MJ. Estimation of potential use of peripheral parking for Los Angeles CBD. Highway Research Record. 1973,z (444), pp.20-26.
  • Ellis RH, Rassam PR, Bennett JC. Development and implementation of a parking allocation model. Highway Research Record. 1972, (395), pp.5-20.
  • Florian M, Los M. Impact of the supply of parking spaces on parking lot choice. Transportation Research Part B: Methodological. 1980 Mar; 14(1-2): 155–63. Available from: Crossref
  • Gray VO, Neale MA. Parking space allocation by computer model. Highway Research Record. 1972; (395): 21–32.
  • Gur YJ, Beimborn EA. Analysis of parking in urban centers: equilibrium assignment approach. Transportation Research Record. 1984; (957): 55–62.
  • Hunt JD. Parking location choice: insights and reresentations based on observed behaviour and the hierarchical logit modelling formula. Ininstitute of transportation engineers meeting. 1988; 1–29.
  • Wildermuth H. Cencimm. A transport model to test Perth central area policies. Western Australian, Department of Transport Report 301. 1986; 1–56.
  • Traffic planning and Design, Incorporatio. Parking analysis Allentown arena and mixed-used development, city of Allentown, Lehigh County, PA, May 31 2011. Available from: files/ANIZDA/Documents/2011-05 31%20allentown%20 arena%20parking%20analysis.pdf.
  • Bajic V. Choice of travel mode for work trips: some findings for metropolitan Toronto. International Journal of Transport Economics/Rivista internazionale di economia dei trasporti. 1984 Apr;11(1): 79–96.
  • Nourht CC, El-Reedy TY, Ismail HK. A Combined Parking and Traffic Assignment Model. Traffic Engineering & Control. 1981 Oct; 22(10): 524–30.
  • Bates JW. A gravity allocation model for parking demand. Highway Research Record. 1972; (395): 1–4.
  • Bullen AG. Development of computerized analysis of alternative parking management policies. 1982; (845):31–7.
  • Cotterill T, Lee J, Liston T. Transport and future development. In Transport, Communication and Urban Form, edited by W. Young (Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University: Clayton, 1987.
  • Oppenlander JC, Dawson RF. Optimal location of sizing of parking facilities. Institute of Transportation Engineers. In 58th Annual Meeting, Vancouver (Technical Paper 428) 1988; 428–30.
  • Goyal SK, Gomes LF. A model for allocating car parking spaces in universities. Transportation research Part B: methodological. 1984 Jun; 18(3): 267–9. Available from: Crossref
  • Chakrabarti S, Mazumder T. Behavioral Characteristics of Car Parking Demand: A Case Study of Kolkata. Institute of Town Planner, India Journal. 2010; 7(4): 1–11.
  • Hensher DA, King J. Parking demand and responsiveness to supply, pricing and location in the Sydney central business district. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice. 2001 Mar; 35(3): 177–96. Available from: Crossref
  • Hensher DA, Stanley J. Performance-based quality contracts in bus service provision. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice. 2003 Jul; 37(6): 519–38. Available from: Crossref Available from: Crossref
  • Kolhar P. On Street Parking Management Plan and CostBenefit Analysis for Dharwad City, Karnataka, India. International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA). 2012; 2(3): 165–65.
  • Kim KW, Li G, Park ST, Ko MH. A Study on Birth Prediction and BCG Vaccine Demand Prediction using ARIMA Analysis. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2016 Jun; 9(24): 1–7. Available from: Crossref
  • Briefing Note on Parking demand Elasticity in the CBD: An Analysis Comparing Calgary with 43 International cities (2010), 2010 Nov.
  • Litman T. Parking pricing implementation guidelines. Victoria transport policy institute. 2010 Nov; 1–35.
  • A report, parking policy in Kolkata Metropolitan area, KMA, India. 2000. Available from:
  • Cantwell M, Caulfield B, O’Mahony M. Examining the factors that impact public transport commuting satisfaction. Journal of Public Transportation. 2009; 12(2):1–21. Available from: Crossref
  • Kingham S, Dickinson J, Copsey S. Travelling to work: will people move out of their cars. Transport policy. 2001 Apr; 8(2):151–60. Crossref
  • Norhisham S, Ismail N. Case Study on Supply and Demand for University Parking Facilities in College of Engineering UNITEN. InInternational Conference on Construction and Building Technology. Grand Seasons Hotel, Kuala Lumpur 2008; (36): 435–48.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.