Total views : 221
A Study on Active Inductor based VCO to Implement PLL Frequency Synthesizer for Zigbee Standard
This research paper is based on various comparative analysis on precise and wide tuning Voltage Controlled Oscillators (VCO) with minimum phase noise and power consumption, using an active inductor tank circuit for Phase Locked Loop (PLL) based frequency synthesizer to support Zigbee wireless LAN standard, operating on 2.4 GHz ISM band (Industrial, Scientific, Medical), supporting 16 channels of 75MHz bandwidth+5MHz guard-band. The performance of the On-chip passive inductor based LC-VCO (inductive-capacitive) for studying the phase noise characteristics as well the tuning range for locking to the reference signal frequency for supporting Zigbee application has been done. Then it has been compared with the VCO implemented with active inductors based on gyrator technology, as the above technique has certain drawbacks in terms of frequency tuning range, limitation in terms of inductor size and Quality-factor. The analysis has been carried out on 180 nm and 90 nm CMOS technology and simulations carried out in Cadence design environment. In this paper various merits and demerits of the different methods adopted in designing the most critical PLL block, the VCO has been reviewed along with the challenges faced while designing this oscillator block for synthesizer application.
Active and Passive Inductor, PLL, Quality-Factor, Synthesizer, VCO, Zigbee.
- Farahani S. Zigbee wireless networks and transceivers. Newton, MA, USA: Newnes; 2008. p. 1–364.
- Cavallini A. Chip-level differential encoding/detection of spread-spectrum signals for CDMA radio transmission over fading channels. IEEE Transactions on Communications. 1997 Apr; 45(4):456–63.
- Grebennikov A. RF and microwave power amplifier design. McGraw-Hill Professional; 2004 Aug 25. p. 1–433.
- Mandal D, Bhattacharyya T. Implementation of CMOS low-power integer-N frequency synthesizer for SOC design. Journal of Computers. 2008; 3(4):31–8.
- Razavi B. Design of analog CMOS integrated circuits. 27th Reprint. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Education; 2013.
- Razavi B. A study of phase noise in CMOS oscillators. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits. 1996 Mar; 31(3):331–43.
- Cheng KH, Hung CL, Gong CSA, Liu JC, Jiang BQ, Sun SY. A 0.9- to 8-GHz VCO with a differential active inductor for multi standard wire line SerDes. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs. 2014 Aug; 61(8):559–63.
- Lai CT, Mao JF. A new floating active inductor using resistive feedback technique. IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest (MTT); China. 2010 May. p. 23–8.
- Hajimiri A, Lee TH. Phase noise in CMOS differential LC oscillators. VLSI Circuits, Digest of Technical Papers, Symposium; USA. 1998 Jun.
- Wu Y, Ding X, Ismail M, Olsson H. RF bandpass filter design based on CMOS active inductors. IEEE Transactions Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing. 2003 Dec; 50(12):942–9.
- Zhou Y, Yuan F. Circuits and systems. 53rd IEEE International Midwest Symposium (MWSCAS); 2010.
- Razavi B. A study of injection locking and pulling in oscillators. IEEE Journal in Solid-State Circuits. 2004Sep; 39(9):1415–24.
- There are currently no refbacks.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.