Total views : 301

Footprint-Based Personal Recognition using Scanning Technique


  • Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Vidya College of Engineering, Meerut – 250002, India
  • Department of Physics, School of Basic Sciences and Research, Sharda University, 32, 34, Knowledge Park-3, Greater Noida – 201306, India


Objectives: Human footprint is emerging as a latest biometric trait for biometric authentication that could be used to detect an individual’s identity and to compute parameters such as foot length, foot category, height, weight, and body mass index. Methods: Static footprint images of 94 individuals (57 males and 37 females) of different regions of north India between age group 15-25 years have been acquired using Scanning technique. Matlab functions have been used for database acquisition, enhancement and feature extraction of the footprint images and for computation of performance measurements. Findings: The performance parameters computed for scanning techniques show a better agreement with experimental results and could be used for biometric authentication. A correlation analysis has also been performed and a strong correlation is observed between actual height and toes, actual height and foot length, height and weight. Applications: This study could be of potential use for forensic and non-forensic purposes and researchers working in foot biometrics.


Biometrics, Footprint, Scanning Technique, Statistical Correlation.

Full Text:

 |  (PDF views: 244)


  • Ogg HL. Measuring and Evaluating the Gait Patterns of Children, Journal of the American Physical Therapy Association. 1963 Oct; 43(1):71720.
  • Robbins LM. Estimating Height and Weight from Size of Footprints, Journal of Forensic Science. 1986 Jan; 31(1):14352.
  • Scrutton DS, Robson P. The Gait of 50 Normal Children, Physiotherapy. 1968 Oct; 54(10):36368.
  • Kennedy BR. Uniqueness of Bare Feet and its use as Possible as a Possible Means of Identification, Forensic Science International. 1996 Sep; 82(1):8187.
  • Nakajima K, Mizukami Y, Tanaka K, Tamura T. Footprint-Based Personal Recognition, IEEE Transaction on Biomedical Engineering. 2000 Nov; 47(11):153437.
  • Jung WJ, Bien Z, Lee WS, Sato T. Dynamic-Footprint Based Person Identification using Mat-Type Pressure Sensor, Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. 2003; 3:293740.
  • Jung WJ, Park HK, Bien Z. Person Recognition Method using Sequential Walking Footprints via Overlapped Foot Shape and Center-Of-Pressure Trajectory, Syetemics, Cybernetics and Informatics. 2013; 11(4):3439.
  • Jung WJ, Sato T, and Bien Z. Dynamic Footprint-Based Person Recognition Method using Hidden Markov Model and Neural Network, International Journal of Intelligent Systems. 2004 Nov; 19(11):1127–41.
  • Personal Identification using Eigenfeet, Ballprint and foot Geometry Biometrics. Date Accessed: 27/09/2007. Available at:
  • Krishan K. Estimation of Stature from Footprint and Foot Outline Dimensions in Gujjars of North India, Forensic Science International. 2008 Mar; 175(2-3):93101.
  • Pawar RM, Pawar MN. Foot Length- a Functional Parameter for Assessment of Height, The Foot. 2012 Mar; 22(1):3134.
  • King RR, Xiaopeng W. Study of Biometric Identification Method Based on Naked Footprint, International Journal of Science and Engineering. 2013 Oct; 5(2):1824.
  • Hemy N, Flavel A, Ishak IN, Franklin D. Estimation of Stature using Anthropometry of Feet and Footprints in a Western Australian Population, Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine. 2013 Jul; 20(5):43541.
  • Kumar VDA, Ramakrishnan M. Legacy of Footprints Recognition: A Review, International Journal of Computer Applications. 2011 Dec; 35(11):916.
  • Unar AJ, Seng CW, Abbasi A. A Review of Biometric Technology Along with Trends and Prospects, Pattern Recognition. 2014 Aug; 47(8):267388.
  • Krishan K, Sharma A. Estimation of Stature from Dimensions of Hands and Feet in a North Indian Population, Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine. 2007 Aug; 14(6):32732.
  • Kanchan T, Menezes RG, Moudgil R, Kaur R, Kotian MS, Garg RK. Stature Estimation from Foot Dimensions, Forensic Science International. 2008 Aug; 179(2-3):241e1e5.
  • Li W, David Z, Xu Z. Plamprint Identification by Fourier Transform, International Journal of Pattern Recognition Artificial Intelligent. 2002 Jun; 16(4):41732.
  • Kumar A, Shen HC. Recognition of Palm Prints using Wavelet-Based Features, Proceeding of International Conference on Systems Cybernetics. 2002; 9:51518.
  • Connie T, Teoh A, Goh M, Ngo D. Palmprint Recognition with PCA and ICA, Palmerston North, 2003 Nov, p. 22732.
  • Barde S, Zadgaonkar AS, Sinha GR. PCA Based Multimodal Biometrics using Ear and Face Modalities, International Journal of Information Technology and Computer Science. 2014 Apr; 6(5):4349.
  • Liu C, Wechsler H. Comparative Assessment of Independent Component Analysis (ICA) for Face Recognition, International Conference on Audio-and Video-based Biometric Person Authentication, 1999, p. 2224.
  • Khokher R, Singh RC, Kumar R. Footprint Recognition with Principal Component Analysis And Independent Component Analysis, Macromolecular Symposium. 2015 Jan; 347(1):1626.
  • Benefice E, Garnier D, Ndiaye G. High Levels of Habitual Physical Activity in West African Adolescent Girls and Relationship to Maturation, Growth, and Nutritional Status: Results from a 3-Year Prospective Study, American Journal of Human Biology. 2001 Nov-Dec; 13(6):80820.
  • Malina RM. Physical Activity and Training: Effects on Stature and the Adolescent Growth Spurt, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 1994 Jun; 26(6):75966.
  • Krishan K. Individualizing Characteristics of Footprints in Gujjars of North India-Forensic Aspects, Forensic Science International. 2007 Jul; 169(2-3):13744.
  • Heusch G, Rodriguez Y, Marcel S. Local Binary Patterns as an Image Preprocessing for Face Authentication, International Conference and Workshop on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition, 2006, p. 914.
  • Hong L, Wan Y, Jain A. Fingerprint Image Enhancement Algorithm and Performance Evaluation, Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, IEEE Transaction on. 1998 Aug; 20(8):77789.
  • Jain CL, Halici U, Hayashi I, Lee BS. Intelligent Biometric Techniques in Fingerprint and Face Recognition, CRC Press, 1999.
  • Marcel S, Bengio S. Improving Face Verification using Skin Color Information, IEEE Proceedings Pattern Recognition. 2002; 2:37881.
  • Messer K, Kittler J, Sadeghi M, Hamouz M, Kostin A, Cardinaux F, Marcel S, Bengio S, Sanderson C, Poh N, Rodriguez Y, Czyz J, Vandendorpe L, McCool C, Lowther S, Sridharan S, Chandran V, Palacios RP, Vidal E, Bai L, Shen LL, Wang Y, Hsuan YC, Chang HL, Ping YH, Heinrichs A, Muller M, Tewes A, Malsburg DVC, Wurtz R, Wang Z, Xue F, Ma Y, Yang Q, Fang C, Ding X, Lucey S, Goss R, Schneiderman H. Face Authentication Competition on the BANCA Database, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2004 Jul, p.815.
  • Rodriguez Y, Marcel S. Face Authentication using Adapted Local Binary Pattern Histograms, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2006 May, p.32132.
  • A Reliable Technique for Personal Identification or Verification. Date Accessed: 11/11/2007. Available at:
  • A Real Time Fingerprint Recognition System Based on Novel Fingerprint Matching Strategy. Date Accessed: 16/08/2007. Available at:


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.