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Production of Oil from Waste Plastics and Polythene using Pyrolysis and its Utilization in Compression Ignition (C.I.) Engine

Affiliations

  • Department of Mechanical Engineering, The North Cap University, Sector-23A, Gurgaon – 122017, Haryana, India

Abstract


Production of Oil from Waste Plastics and Polythene using Pyrolysis and its Utilization in Compression Ignition (C.I.) Engine Sumit Bhat and Rohit Singh Lather Department of Mechanical Engineering, The North Cap University, Sector-23A, Gurgaon – 122017, Haryana, India; sumitbhat@ncuindia.edu, rohitlather@ncuindia.edu Abstract Objectives: Utilization of waste effectively and efficiently is one the major concern in today’s world. The depleting natural resources (like fossil fuels) add further to this concern. If we continue to use and exploit fossil fuels at the existing rate, then after another 150 years or so they would be no longer available for our use. Therefore, it is the duty of present generation to use fossil fuels judiciously so that something is left for the generations to come. The need of the hour is to adopt some measures which can help to manage wastes and at the same time to create some alternate fuels out of the waste only to conserve the precious fossil fuels. Thus pyrolysis these days is catching everybody’s attention due to its potential to utilize variety of waste feedstock’s to generate combustible products and may prove to be potential technology for society in the times to come. Methods/ Statistical Analysis: The process known as “Pyrolysis” which can be a possible solution for conversion of waste to fuel. In pyrolysis wastes like plastic, polythene, tyres and biomass etc. can be used as feedstock’s, using heat in absence of air are converted to fuel oil, chemicals and gas. In the present work pyrolysis is used for converting waste plastic into fuel oil termed as pyrolytic oil. A semi batch type pyrolysis reactor was used to carry out pyrolysis. The pyrolysis was carried out at 3500C.The vapours of the waste plastic and polythene generated during pyrolysis were condensed using condensing unit into oil. The pyrolytic oil obtained was filtered using multiple pass filter paper. The following test fuels were developed: blends (5%, 10%, 15% and 20% by volume) of this oil with diesel were prepared and they were compared with 100% diesel. Performance parameters such as, Thermal Efficiency, Specific Fuel Consumption and Torque were measured. These performance parameters were measured at different loads at 1500rotations per minute (r.p.m).Now this derived oil was further checked for emissions like Nitrogen Oxide (NO), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Hydro Carbon( HC) etc. on Gas Analyser. Findings: Properties like calorific value, kinematic viscosity and density were measured and compared with diesel. The calorific value of pyrolytic oil was about 39.769 MJ/kg. Viscosity of the pyrolytic oil was checked with Redwood Viscometer and was 0.0038 stokes at 600C. The density of the derived fuel was 780 kg/m3. The results clearly indicated that these three properties were comparable with other conventional fuel oils especially diesel. Therefore, this derived pyrolytic oil was further used for carrying out investigations on compression ignition engine for checking its performance parameters. The results clearly indicated that indicated thermal efficiency and Brake thermal efficiency obtained with 20% blend was more in comparison with 100% diesel. The value of torque at different loads came out almost similar for different blends and 100% diesel. The results were clearly in favour of pyrolytic oil. The value of NO emissions were higher in comparison to 100% diesel but the emission levels of CO, HC, and CO2 were found lower. than 100% diesel. The absorption coefficient of this oil was checked on Smoke meter and compared with 100% diesel. It was observed that absorption coefficient with 20% blend was much lower as compared to 100% diesel. From the research work it is established that pyrolytic oil can serve as a good alternate fuel as compared to diesel because of its performance and less emissions. From investigations it is seen that various factors like calorific value, density, viscosity etc. obtained with this oil are comparable with other fuel oils especially diesel. Results obtained with different blends (5%, 10%, 15% and 20%) of pyrolytic oil with diesel have shown that the various performance parameters like indicated thermal efficiency, brake thermal efficiency, torque etc. are more or less at par with diesel fuel. Application/ Improvement:With some suitable alterations in the reactor the efficiency and yield can still be improved keeping economic viability into consideration at the same time

Keywords

Alternative Fuel, Pyrolysis, Waste Plastics, Waste Polythene.

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