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Linear Programming Approach for Feed Ration Formulation of Pre-Starter Swine using Locally- Available Feed Ingredients in the Philippines


  • Department of Mathematical Sciences, College of Science and Mathematics, University of Science and Technology of Southern Philippines, Lapasan, Cagayan de Oro City, 9000, Philippines, Philippines


Objectives: In this study, alternative feed rations for backyard pre-starter swine are formulated using various combinations of locally-available feed ingredients in the Philippines. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Feed rations are formulated using linear programming techniques. Various combinations of feed ingredients, namely coconut residue, water spinach, sweet potato leaves, cassava leaves, banana pseudo stem, duckweed fern, lead tree leaves, taro leaves, madre de agua leaves, water hyacinth leaves, rice bran D1and rice bran D2, mixed with preferred commercially-available pre-starter feeds are considered to find cheaper feed rations while ensuring that required basic nutrients for pre-starter swine are met. Findings: Results of the numerical experiments provide cheaper feed ration formulations for pre-starter swine. Specifically, 18 least-cost feed rations were obtained using various combinations of the 12 ingredients with the cheapest at PHP 9.20 (Ration 1) per kilo and the most expensive at PHP 11.57 (Ration 13). When the feed rations are formulated to include 10%, 25% or 50% of the preferred commercially-available pre-starter feed, the cheapest feed ration costs, respectively, PHP 13.93 (Ration1), PHP 21.07 (Rations 1 and 5), and PHP 33.10 (Ration 1). Feed ration formulations obtained in all 4 cases considered in this study were way cheaper as compared to the most preferred pre-starter feed available in the market which is sold at PHP 42 per kilo. Based on linear programming formulations, all feed rations obtained in this study contain the required amount of calcium, crude protein, moisture, crude fiber, phosphorus and crude fat for pre-starter swine. Application/ Improvements: Using the results of this study, backyard swine raisers can have cheaper pre-starter swine feed rations by mixing commercially-available pre-starter feed with the appropriate locally-available feed ingredients.


Locally-Available Feeds, Linear Programming, Pre-Starter, Philippines, Swine Feeds

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