Total views : 215

Knowledge Management Enablers and Barriers in the Army: An Interpretive Structural Modeling Approach


  • Symbiosis Institute Management Studies, Pune – 411020, Maharashtra, India
  • Symbiosis International University, Pune – 411020, Maharashtra, India


Background: Lately, Knowledge Management (KM) is an essential component of decisions and outcomes. Thus, large number of organizations aspires to implement KM. However, there are a few factors known as Knowledge Management Enablers and Barriers, henceforth, referred to as EBs which affect KM.Similarly, it would be imperative that these facets be analysed and tested in a closed environment like the Army. Objective:This paper studiesthe basic relationships amongst the shortlistedEBs. It also triesto understand their inter-se priorities and to identify those which are pivotal and drive others and also those which are driven. Methods andAnalysis: Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM) has been adopted for this study. The inter-se and inter relationships between the EBsdistinctly emerged from the study. These EBs werethen categorised, based on their ability to drive othersor their dependence on others. Ultimately,how critical each factor is for the success of KM in the army environment was identified. Conclusion/ Further Study: Enablers and Barriers are the key in the KM implementation process. Conclusively, all nine EBs are relevant although they exhibit a varying degree of relative importance. Future study, could quantify the framework obtained from ISM model, using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). Then focus on sub-centres of each factor having Driving and Dependence Powers, and how they will impact and also give the impetus, for KM to succeed.


Barriers, Enablers, ISM, Knowledge Management, Micmac Analysis.

Full Text:

 |  (PDF views: 260)


  • Chinowsky P, Carrillo P. Knowledge Management to Learning Organization Connection. Journal of Management In Engineering © ASCE, 2007; 23(3):122–30.
  • Dariush R , Khosro E, Eghbal HS, Morad AN. Providing An Applied Model For Knowledge Management Development Planning In Military Organizations: Providing Proposed Methodology For NAJA, Kuwait.Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review . 2014Sept; 4(1):1–9.
  • Chattopadhyay SP. Management education reform in a knowledge management Environment. Journal of American Academy of Business. 2007; 11(1):168–72.
  • Bennet A, Bennet D. Moving from Knowledge to Wisdom: From Ordinary Consciousness to Extraordinary Consciousness. VINE Journal of Information and Knowledge Management Systems 2008; 38(1):7–15.
  • Deng L, Poole MS. Learning Through ICT-Enabled Social Networks. International Journal of Information Technology and Management.2008; 7(4):374–91.
  • Bozbura F. Knowledge Management Practices in Turkish SMEs. Journal of Enterprise, Information, Management,.2007,;20( 2):209–21.
  • Boh WF. Mechanisms for Sharing Knowledge in ProjectBased Organizations. Information and Organization. 2007; 17(1):27–58.
  • Pillania RK. Information Technology Strategy for Knowledge Management in SMEs. Knowledge and Process Management. 2008;15(3):203–10.
  • Ooi K B. TQM and Knowledge Management: Literature Review and ProposedFramework. African Journal of Business Management. 2009;3(11): 633–43.
  • Zollo G, Iandoli L. Organizational Cognition and Learning. Building Systems for the Learning Organization. New York:Information Science Publishing; 2007; p .362.
  • Evangelista P, Esposito E, Lauro V , Raffa M. The Adoption of Knowledge Management Systems in Small Firms. Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management. 2010; 8(1): 1–10.
  • Sage A. Interpretive Structural Modeling: Methodology for Large-scale Systems. New York: McGraw-Hill.1997. p. 91–164.
  • Warfield J. Developing interconnection matrices in structural modeling. IEEE Transactionsons on Systems, Manand Cybernetics.2005; 4(1):81–67.
  • Pillania RK. Leveraging Knowledge for Sustainable Competitiveness in SMEs. International Journal of Global and Small Business. 2006; 1(4):393–406.
  • Khalil O, Claudio A, Seliem A. Knowledge Management: The Case of the Acushnet Company. SAM Advanced Management Journal,.2006; 71(3):34–50.
  • Hansen S, Avital M. Contributing your wisdom or showing your cards? A quantitative inquiry of knowledge sharing behaviour. 2005.
  • Hong C, Goh T, Hooper V. Knowledge and information sharing in a closed information environment. Journal of Knowledge Management.2009;13(2):21–34.
  • Armin A, Alamdari A, Sohrab. knowledge management and innovation strategy in defensive organizations. Political Science Quarterly. 2010;19:73–90
  • Jones NB, Mahon JF. Nimble knowledge transfer in high velocity/ turbulent environments. Journal of Knowledge Management. 2012; 16(5):774–88.
  • Bennet A, Bennet D, Lee SL. Exploring the military contribution to KBD through leadership and values.Journal of Knowledge Management. 2010;14(2):314–330.
  • Abdul-Rahman H, Wang C. Preliminary approach to improve knowledge management in engineering management. Scientific Research and Essays. 2010; 5(15):1950–64.
  • Erwin SI, Tiron R. Success of lessons learned process based on truthfulness. National Defense. 2002;87 (584).
  • Theriou N, Maditinos D, Theriou G. Knowledge Management Enabler Factors and Firm Performance: An Empirical Research of the Greek Medium and Large Firms. European Research Studies. 2011;14(2):1–38.
  • Andersen A. The American Productivity and Quality Centre. 1996.
  • American Productivity and Quality Center. Knowledge management: Executive summary: Consortium Benchmarking Study Best-Practice. Report, APQC. Houston, TX. Available from: 1999.
  • Earl MJ. Knowledge in organizations. Knowledge as strategy: Reflections on Skandia International and Shorko Films. L. (ed.). Prusak. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1997.
  • Skyrme DJ.The 3Cs of knowledge sharing: culture, co-opetition and commitment. ( f1.htm), Date accessed:08/2002.
  • Holsapple C W, Joshi K D. An investigation of factors that influence the management of knowledge in organizations. The Journal of Strategic Information Systems. 2002; 9(2): 235–61.
  • Davenport TH, Prusack L. Working Knowledge: How organizations manage what they know. Harvard Business School Press.1998.
  • Liebowitz J. Key ingredients to the success of an organization’s knowledge management strategy. Knowledge and Process Management. 1999; 6 (1):37–40.
  • Davenport TH, Probst G. Knowledge Management Case Book. Best Practices, 2nd ed., New York: Wiley, 2002.
  • Mathi K. Key Success Factors For Knowledge Management, Lindau, Germany. MBA: International Business Management and Consulting, 2004.
  • Pan SL, Scarbrough H. Knowledge management in practice: an exploratory case study. Technology and Strategic Management. 1999; 11(3):359–74.
  • Ladd A, Ward MA. An investigation of environment factors influencing knowledge transfer. Journal of Knowledge Management Practice. 2002 Aug. Available from: (
  • Bartol KM, Srivastava A. Encouraging knowledge sharing: the role of Organisational reward systems. Journal of Leadership and Organisation Studies. 2009;9(1):64–76.
  • Hexmoor H, Wilson S, Bhattaram S. A theoretical inter-organizational trust-based security model.The Knowledge Engineering Review. 2006; 21(2):127–61.
  • Riege A. Three-Dozen Knowledge-Sharing Barriers Managers Must Consider. Journal of Knowledge Management. 2005; 9(3):18–35.
  • Goman CK. Five reasons people don’t tell what they know.
  • June 22. Available from: 39. Stevens L. Incentives for sharing. Knowledge Management Magazine. 2002 October. Available from: ¼ 778
  • Skyrme DJ, Amidon D, The Knowledge Agenda. Journal of Knowledge Management. 1997; 1(1):27–37.
  • Figallo C, Rhine N. Building the Knowledge Management Network. New York, NY: Wiley Technology Publishing. 2002.
  • Stoddart L. Managing intranets to encourage knowledge sharing: Opportunities and Constraints. Online Information Review. 2001; 25(1):19–29.
  • Carr CA, Erickson GS, Rothberg HN. Knowledge-sharing in value-chain networks: Certifying collaborators for effective protection processes. Advances in Competitiveness Research. 2003; 11(1):152–64.
  • French M, Michael S. CIA, FBI wrangle over threat center. Federal Computer Week. 2002; 17(12):8–9.
  • Lichtblau E. Agencies still fail to share information. New York Times, 2003 30 Apr.
  • Kellogg JK. Protecting America with information technology.Journal Signals. 2003; 57(10):35.
  • Davidson C, Voss P. Knowledge Management: An Introduction to Create Competitive Advantage from Intellectual Capital. Tandem Press, Auckland. 2002.
  • Davenport TH. Known evils: Common pitfalls of knowledge management. 2004 March 05. Available from:
  • Lunney K.NASA managers not sharing lessons learned.Available from:, 2002.
  • Chia R, Holt R. On managerial knowledge. Management Learning. 2008; 39(2):141–58.
  • Ede MC, Mohamed S. Mapping relationships among the enablers of knowledge management within Hong Kong construction organisations. Procedia Engineering.2011;14:1938–44.
  • Chong SC, Salleh K, Ahmad SNS, Sharifuddin SISO. KM implementation in a public sector accounting organization: an empirical investigation. Journal of Knowledge Management. 2011; 15(3):497–512.
  • Yousif LA, AL-Hakim,, Hassan S. The role of middle managers in knowledge management implementation for innovation enhancement. International Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology. 2011; 2(1):1–9.
  • Warfield JN. On arranging elements of a hierarchy in graphic form. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics.1973; (2):121–32.
  • Waller RJ. Application of interpretive structural modeling to priority-setting in urban systems management. Portraits of complexity. 1975; 9:104–8.
  • Sharma H D, Gupta A D , Sushil. The Objectives of Waste Management in India: A Futures Inquiry, Technology Forecast and Social Change. 1995; 48(3):285–309.
  • Mandal A, Deshmukh S. Vendor selection using interpretive structural modeling (ism). International Journal of Operations and Production Management. 1994; 14(6) pp.52–59.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.