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Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Waves: Case Studies and Safety Standards


  • School of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara - 144411, Punjab, India


Objective: The purpose of writing this paper is to get knowledge about the electromagnetic fields, their applications and the most important i.e. to know about the biological effects of electromagnetic waves and the safety standards. Method: For to study about the adverse effects, several case studies have been included, each case study is based upon some experimental approach executed by different researchers. To calculate exposure level on tissue of human body, SAR measurement and FDTD method is introduced. This also describes the safety standards, as the research is done by various researchers and the organizations like FCC, ICNIRP, IEEE, CENELEC, AS/NSZ, NISV and NRPB etc., they have defined the maximum expectable exposure levels for protection of human health. Result: The results are found about thermal effect on human head, biological changes or imbalances, DNA changes etc. For resolving these problems, power radiation standards have been defined to minimize the possible health hazards.


EIRP (Equivalent Isotropically Radiated Power), NIEMR (Non Ionizing Electro Magnetic Radiations), MW(Microwave),SAR (Specific Absorption Rate)

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