Total views : 305

New Smart nodes distribution using Kmeans Approach to enhance Routing in WSN


  • Laboratoire de Mathematiques Appliquees et Informatique. Faculte des Sciences et Techniques Gueliz, Universite Cadi Ayyad, 40 000 Marrakech, Morocco


Objectives: Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is an advanced technology, applied to many fields of research. However, it still limited due to some drawbacks, the energy consumed is one of them, which presents a critical issue. So that, our objective in this paper is to decrease the energy consumed during communication and prolong the network lifetime in Geographic Adaptive Fidelity (GAF) protocol. Methods/Statistical analysis: The Kmeans method was been exploited for improving the energy consumed in the network during routing data, which permit extending the network lifetime. It aims at distributing the sensor nodes. Where, the gravity center is determined as an active node, considering the least distance to the center of gravity and respecting the multihop communication between Active nodes. Findings: Simulation results confirmed that our new improved protocol reduces significantly nodes energy, which improves the network lifetime. Application/Improvements: By introducing our enhanced version Kmeans GAF, we can improve localization systems.


Center of Gravity, GAF, Grid, Kmeans Algorithm, Location-Based, Routing Protocols, WSN.

Full Text:

 |  (PDF views: 336)


  • Akyildiz F, Su W, Sankarasubramaniam Y, Cayirci E. A survey on sensor networks in IEEE Communications Magazine. 2002; 40(8):102–14.
  • Abdullah M. Issue 2 (2014) Routing protocols for wireless sensor networks: classifications and challenges. Quest Journals, Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering Research. 2014; 2(2):5–15.
  • Intanagonwiwat C, Govindan R, Estrin D. Directed diffusion: a scalable and robust communication paradigm for sensor networks. Proceedings of ACM Mobi- Com; 2000, Boston, MA; 2000. p. 56–67.
  • Braginsky D, Estrin D. Rumor routing algorithm for sensor networks. Proceedings of the First Workshop on Sensor Networks and Applications (WSNA), Atlanta, Georgia, USA; 2002. p. 22–31.
  • Kulik J, Heinzelman WR, Balakrishnan H. Negotiationbased protocols for disseminating information in wireless sensor networks. Wireless Networks. 2002; 8:169–85.
  • Yao Y, Gehrke J. The cougar approach to in network query processing in sensor networks, Special Interest Group on Management of Data (SIGMOD) Record. 2002; 31(3): 9–18.
  • Sadagopan N et al. The acquire mechanism for efficient querying in sensor networks. Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Sensor Network Protocol and Applications, Anchorage, Alaska; 2003.
  • Aziz L, Raghay S, Aznaoui H, Jamali A. A new enhanced version of VLEACH protocol using a smart path selection.International Journal of GEOMATE. 2017 Feb; 12(30): 28 –34.
  • Aziz L, Raghay S, Jamali A. A New improved algorithm of LEACH protocol for wireless sensor networks. In Proceedings of 2014 Mediterranean Microwave Symposium (MMS), Marrakech, Morocco; 2014.
  • Aziz L , Raghay S, Aznaoui H, Jamali A. Comparative analysis of LEACH and V-LEACH protocols in wireless Sensor Networks, International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security. 2016; 14(4):112–9.
  • Rama Lakshmi G, Srikanth V. Location-Based Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Network-A Survey. 2015; 5(4).
  • Aziz L, Raghay S, Aznaoui H , Jamali A. A new approach based on a genetic algorithm and an agent cluster head to optimize energy in Wireless Sensor Networks. International Conference on Information Technology for Organizations Development (IT4OD), Fez, Morocco; 2016.
  • Aznaoui H, Raghay S, Aziz L , Ait-Mlouk A. A comparative study of routing protocols in WSN. 5th International Conference on Information and Communication Technology and Accessibility (ICTA), Marrakech, Morocco; 2015.
  • Li L, Halpern JY. Minimum-energy mobile wireless networks revisited. Proceedings IEEE ICC’01, Helsinki, Finland; 2001 Jun. p. 278–83.
  • Xu Y, Heidemann J, Estrin D. Geography-informed energy conservation for ad hoc routing. In Proceedings of the 7th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom ’01), Rome, Italy; 2001 Jul. p.70–84.
  • Shang F, Liu J. Multi-hop topology control algorithm for wireless sensor networks. Journal of Networks. 2012; 7(9):1407–14.
  • Chen Z, Ouyang Y, Liu Q. A GAF Algorithm of Dislocated Grid for Wireless Sensor Network, volume 163 of the series Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing 2013. p. 721–8.
  • Soni V, Mallick K. A novel scheme to minimize hop count for GAF in wireless sensor networks: two-level GAF.Journal of Computer Networks and Communications.2015; 2015:9.
  • Liu G, Wen W. A improved GAF clustering algorithm for three-dimensional underwater acoustic networks.In Computer Communication Control and Automation (3CA). International Symposium. 2010; 1:508–12.
  • Inagaki T, Ishihara S. HGAF:A power saving scheme for wireless sensor networks. Information Processing Society of Japan Journal. 2009 Oct; 50(10):2520–31.
  • You J, Lieckfeldt D, Salzmann J, Timmermann D. GAF and Co: Connectivity aware topology management for sensor networks. IEEE 20th International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC); 2009. p. 2260–4.
  • Grover J, Shikha, Sharma M. Optimized GAF in wireless sensor network. Reliability, Infocom Technologies and Optimization (ICRITO) (Trends and Future Directions).3rd International Conference on, Noida; 2014. p. 1–6.
  • Sasikumar P, Khara S. K-means clustering in wireless sensor networks. Fourth International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Communication Networks; 2012.
  • Elkamel R, Baccar N, Cherif A, Improvements in LEACH based on K-means and Gauss algorithms, Procedia Computer Science. 2015; 73.
  • Atefeh H, Amir Abbas B, Elham R. Improved k-means Algorithm Method for Reducing Energy Consumption in Wireless Sensor Networks. J. Basic. Appl. Sci. Res. 2013 ; 3(9):534–42.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.