Total views : 263
Current Knowledge and Research Opportunities in Nuclear Fire Safety: A Technical Overview on Aircraft Impact upon Nuclear Containment
Objective: This paper scrutinizes the available literature and presents a comprehensive overview of nuclear fire safety, acknowledging some areas for future research. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Relevant literatures on the aircraft impact upon nuclear reactor containment were reviewed. Scope, findings and limitations of major researches in this field were presented and possible areas of future research were highlighted. A statistical analysis on the number of scientific publications on nuclear fire safety per five years which present the progress in the subject matter was reported. The analysis considered 1968 and 2015 as the base and end years respectively. Findings: In general, some of the identified challenging issues and limitations of nuclear fire studies are: (i) there are limited experimental data on real nuclear fire (ii) studies which considered the impact of external events like aircraft crash on containment gave little or no considerations to tendon gallery, openings and penetrations as in most cases, crash were hypothetically assumed to occur at the midpoint of the cylindrical portion of the containment and near the junction of dome without making recourse to the other portions of the containment e.g. roofing and reactor base (iii) Most reactor fire analysis do not consider material properties at elevated temperatures (iv) in the hazard analysis concerning aircraft impact, assessment of hazards from fireball and pool fire are yet to be fully considered (v) there are very limited data concerning structural failure modes caused by nearfield explosive loading. Application/Improvement: The findings of this article could be used to improve the existing methodologies of nuclear fire safety assessment in order to address some of the identified challenging issues.
Fire Hazards, Nuclear Reactor, Nuclear Power Plant, Nuclear Accident, Nuclear Safety.
- Alexander K, Mhamed S, Ivan V. Load on Structures due to Large Aiplane Impact. International Conference on Structural Mechanics in Reactor Technology. August 18–23, 2013; San Francisco IASMiRT; 2013.
- Matala A, Hostikka S. Probabilistic simulation of cable performance and water based protection in cable tunnel fires.Nuclear Engineering and Design. 2011; 241(12):5263–74.
- Sofu T. An Overview of the U.S. SFR General Design Creteria. International conference on fast reactors and related fuel cycles: Safe Technologies and Sustainable Scenarios March 4–7, 2013; France 2013.
- Cameron RF, Willers A. Use of risk assessment in the nuclear industry with specific reference to the Australian situation. Reliability Engineering and System Safety. 2001; 74(3):275–82.
- Keller W, Modarres M. A historical overview of probabilistic risk assessment development and its use in the nuclear power industry: a tribute to the late Professor Norman Carl Rasmussen. Reliability Engineering and System Safety.2005; 89(3):271–85.
- Berg HP, Breiling G, Hoffmann HH. Procedures and applications to enlarge the level 1+ PSA to internal fires in German nuclear power plants. Reliability Engineering and System Safety. 1997; 58(2):109–17.
- HSE. A Review of the State-of-the-Art in Gas Explosion Modelling. Review. Buxton: 2002 2002. Report No.: Contract No.: HSL/2002/02.
- Siddiqui NA, Iqbal MA, Abbas H, Paul DK. Reliability analysis of nuclear containment without metallic liners against jet aircraft crash. Nuclear Engineering and Design. 2003; 224(1):11–21.
- Jeon S-J, Jin B-M, Kim Y-J. Assessment of the fire resistance of a nuclear power plant subjected to a large commercial aircraft crash. Nuclear Engineering and Design. 2012; 247(0):11–22.
- Luther W, Müller WC. FDS simulation of the fuel fireball from a hypothetical commercial airliner crash on a generic nuclear power plant. Nuclear Engineering and Design.2009; 239(10):2056–69.
- Dundulis G, Kulak RF, Marchertas A, Uspuras E. Structural integrity analysis of an Ignalina nuclear power plant building subjected to an airplane crash. Nuclear Engineering and Design. 2007; 237(14):1503–12.
- Iqbal MA, Rai S, Sadique MR, Bhargava P. Numerical simulation of aircraft crash on nuclear containment structure.Nuclear Engineering and Design. 2012; 243(0):321–35.
- Abbas H, Paul DK, Godbole PN, Nayak GC. Aircraft crash upon outer containment of nuclear power plant. Nuclear Engineering and Design. 1996; 160(1–2), pp.13-50.
- Sadique MR, Iqbal MA, Bhargava P. Nuclear containment structure subjected to commercial and fighter aircraft crash. Nuclear Engineering and Design. 2013; 260(0):30–46.
- Safaei AS, Nematollahi M, Sepanloo K. Coupling CFAST fire modeling and SAPHIRE probabilistic assessment software for internal fire safety evaluation of a typical TRIGA research reactor. Reliability Engineering and System Safety.2010; 95(3):166–72.
- IAEA. External Human Induced Events in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Power Plants. VIENNA: 2002 Contract No.: NS-G-3.1.
- IAEA. External Events Excluding Earthquakes in the Design of Nuclear Power Plants. VIENNA, Austria: International Atomic Energy Agency, 2003.
- Kyu Ahn S, Kim IS, Myung Oh K. Deterministic and risk-informed approaches for safety analysis of advanced reactors: Part I, deterministic approaches. Reliability Engineering and System Safety. 2010; 95(5):451–8.
- Fleming KN, Silady FA. A risk informed defense-in-depth framework for existing and advanced reactors. Reliability Engineering and System Safety. 2002; 78(3):205–25.
- Garrick BJ, Christie RF. Probabilistic risk assessment practices in the USA for nuclear power plants. Safety Science.2002; 40(1–4):177–201.
- Hurley Morgan J, Bukowski Richard W. Fire Hazard Analysis Techniques. Fire Protection Handbook: National Fire Protection Association; 2003.
- Jain S, Kumar S, Kumar S, Sharma TP. Numerical simulation of fire in a tunnel: Comparative study of CFAST and CFX predictions. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology. 2008; 23(2):160–70.
- Jones WP, R.D. P, Forney GP. CFAST-Consolidated Model of Fire Growth and Smoke Transport. USA: National Institute of Standard and Technology, 2004 Contract No.: 1030.
- William DW, Budnick KE. Deterministic Computer Fire Models. Fire Protection Hand Book: National Fire Protection Association; 1997, p. 11-52-11-69.
- Glenn PF. Analyzing and Exploiting Numerical Characteristics of Zone Fire Models. Fire Science and Technology. 1994; 14(1 and 2).
- Iqbal J, Shoaib SR, Qaiser A. Effects of an external explosion on a concrete structure [Ph.D]: University of Engineering and Technology, Taxila, Pakistan 2009.
- Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy L. Preliminary Safety Report on Civil Engineering and External Hazards. UK: 2014 Contract No.: XE-GD-0112.
- USNRC. Response of Reinforced Concrete Structures to Aircraft Crash Impact USA: Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 2011 Contract No.: NRC−02−07−006.
- Riera JD. On the stress analysis of structures subjected to aircraft impact forces. Nuclear Engineering and Design.1968; 8(4):415–26.
- Hossain QA, Kennedy RP, Murray RC, Mutreja K, Tripathi BP. Structures, Systems, and Components Evaluation Technical Support Document. DOE Standard, Accident Analysis for Aircraft Crash into Hazardous Facilities. In: U.S Department of Energy Washingnton D, editor. Livermore, California1997.
- Riera JD, Zorn NF, Schuëller GI. An approach to evaluate the design load time history for normal engine impact taking into account the crash-velocity distribution. Nuclear Engineering and Design. 1982; 71(3):311–6.
- Yang HTY, Godfrey DA. Structural analysis of aircraft impact on a nuclear containment vessel and associated structures.Nuclear Engineering and Design. 1970; 11(2):295–307.
- Wolf JP, Bucher KM, Skrikerud PE. Response of equipment to aircraft impact. Nuclear Engineering and Design. 1978; 47(1):169–93.
- Arros J, Doumbalski N. Analysis of aircraft impact to concrete structures. Nuclear Engineering and Design. 2007; 237(12–13):1241–9.
- Bahar LY, Rice JS. Simplified derivation of the reactiontime history in aircraft impact on a nuclear power plant.Nuclear Engineering and Design. 1978; 49(3):263–8.
- Lee K, Han SE, Hong J-W. Analysis of impact of large commercial aircraft on a prestressed containment building.Nuclear Engineering and Design. 2013; 265(0):431–49.
- Kojima I. An experimental study on local behavior of reinforced concrete slabs to missile impact. Nuclear Engineering and Design. 1991; 130(2):121–32.
- Kirkpatrick S, MacNeill R, Bocchieri R, Phan V, Jung R-Y, Lee5 J. Evaluation of Aircraft Impact Analysis Methodologies for Nuclear Safety Applications. International Conference on Structural Mechanics in Reactor Technology August 18–23, 2013; San Francisco, California, USA. San Fransisco, California, USA: International Association for Structural Mechanics in Reactor Technology; 2013.
- Drittler K, Gruner P. The force resulting from impact of fast-flying military aircraft upon a rigid wall. Nuclear Engineering and Design. 1976; 37(2):245–8.
- Abbas H, Paul DK, Godbole PN, Nayak GC. Reaction-time response of aircraft crash. Computers and Structures. 1995; 55(5):809–17.
- Sugano T, Tsubota H, Kasai Y, Koshika N, Orui S, von Riesemann WA, et al. Full-scale aircraft impact test for evaluation of impact force. Nuclear Engineering and Design.1993; 140(3):373–85.
- Petrangeli G. Large Airplane Crash on a Nuclear Plant.ICAPP; Nice, France 2007. p. 13–8.
- Petrangeli G. Large airplane crash on a nuclear plant: Design study against excessive shaking of components.Nuclear Engineering and Design. 2010; 240(12): 4037–42.
- Frano RL, Forasassi G. Preliminary evaluation of aircraft impact on a near term nuclear power plant. Nuclear Engineering and Design. 2011; 241(12):5245–50.
- Kukreja M. Damage evaluation of 500 MWe Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor nuclear containment for aircraft impact. Nuclear Engineering and Design. 2005; 235(17–19):1807–17.
- There are currently no refbacks.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.