Total views : 166

Causes of Organizational Cynicism and its Consequence on Teaching Staff in Malaysia


  • Faculty of Technology Management and Business, University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Batu Pahat, Malaysia
  • Faculty of Arts and Social Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Malaysia


Cynicism reveals itself as a new pattern in employer and employee relations. Now academicians are realising the effect that cynicism can have on organizations. This phenomenon has widespread in various kinds of organizations. This study considering a systematized view in which organizational cynicism measured as a negative behaviour, mainly in the educational sector. Current study aimed to endeavours to analyse the mediator role of organizational cynicism on the relationship among workplace incivility, psychological contract violation, with the outcome of organisational citizenship behaviour among teaching staff of the public secondary schools of Malaysia. The current study emphasises the value of working environment and personal characteristics of employees in determining organisational cynicism and will suggest the causes and consequences of cynicism.


Cynicism, Workplace Incivility, Psychological Contract Violation, Organisational Citizenship Behaviour.

Full Text:

 |  (PDF views: 143)


  • Munir Y, Khalifah ZB, Tahira A, Khan H. Interactive effect of organizational cynicism on perception of organizational politics and citizenship behaviour. International Journal of Information Processing and Management. 2014; 5(1): 18–27.
  • Bransgrove E. A decade of teacher stress: The changing nature of the determinants of teacher stress, 1981 to 1991. The South Pacific Journal of Teacher Education. 1994; 22(1):39–52.
  • Hock RR. Professional burnout among public school teachers. Public Personnel Management. 1988; 17(2):167–89.
  • Abdullah K, Noor NM, Wok S. The perceptions of women’s roles and progress: A study of Malay women. Social Indicators Research. 2008; 89(3):439–55.
  • UNESCO and ITA. Status of Teachers in Pakistan; 2013. Lahore, Pakistan. 2015.
  • Khalid A. Occupational stress - What nobody tells you about teaching in Pakistan. DAWN; 2015.
  • Laschinger HK, Grau AL. The influence of personal dispositional factors and organizational resources on workplace violence, burnout and health outcomes in new graduate nurses: A cross-sectional study. International Journal of Nursing Studies. 2012; 49(3):282–91.
  • Munir Y, Ghafoor MM, Rasli AM. Exploring the relationship of horizontal violence, organizational cynicism and turnover intention in the context of social exchange theory. International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare. 2016; 9(4):254–66.
  • Wilson MA, Goettemoeller DM, Bevan NA, McCord JM. Moral distress: Levels, coping and preferred interventions in critical care and transitional care nurses. Journal of Clinical Nursing. 2013; 22(9-10):1455–66.
  • Wojtowicz B, Hagen B, Smith VD. No place to turn: Nursing students’ experiences of moral distress in mental health settings. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing. 2014; 23(3):257–64.
  • Laschinger HK, Fida R. A time-lagged analysis of the effect of authentic leadership on workplace bullying, burnout and occupational turnover intentions. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology. 2014; 23(5):739–53.
  • Suzuki E, Tagaya A, Ota K, Nagasawa Y, Matsuura R, Sato C. Factors affecting turnover of Japanese novice nurses in university hospitals in early and later periods of employment. Journal of Nursing Management. 2010; 18(2):194–204.
  • Blau PM. Exchange and power in social life. Transaction Publishers; 1964.
  • Dorman JP. Relationship between school and classroom environment and teacher burnout: A LISREL analysis. Social Psychology of Education. 2003; 6(2):107–27.
  • Leiter MP, Peck E, Gumuchian S. Workplace incivility and its implications for well-being. Mistreatment in Organizations. 2015; 13:107–35.
  • Jackson D, Clare J, Mannix J. Who would want to be a nurse? Violence in the workplace – a factor in recruitment and retention. Journal of Nursing Management. 2002; 10(1):13–20.
  • Glomb TM. Workplace anger and aggression: Informing conceptual models with data from specific encounters. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology. 2002; 7(1): 20–36.
  • Lim S, Cortina LM, Magley VJ. Personal and workgroup incivility: Impact on work and health outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology. 2008; 93(1):95–107.
  • Johnson PR, Indvik J. Slings and arrows of rudeness: Incivility in the workplace. Journal of Management Development, 2001; 20(8):705–14.
  • Lim S, Lee A. Work and nonwork outcomes of workplace incivility: Does family support help? Journal of Occupational Health Psychology. 2011; 16(1):95–111.
  • Ghosh R, Jacobs JL, Reio TG. The toxic continuum from incivility to violence: What can HRD do? Advances in Developing Human Resources. 2011; 13(1):3–9.
  • Giumetti GW, Hatfield AL, Scisco JL, Schroeder AN, Muth ER, Kowalski RM. What a rude e-mail! Examining the differential effects of incivility versus support on mood, energy, engagement and performance in an online context. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology. 2013; 18(3):297–309.
  • Abraham R. Organizational cynicism: Bases and consequences. Genetic, Social and General Psychology Monographs. 2000; 126(3):269–92.
  • Chiaburu DS, Peng AC, Oh IS, Banks GC, Lomeli LC. Antecedents and consequences of employee organizational cynicism: A meta-analysis. Journal of Vocational Behavior. 2013; 83(2):181–97.
  • Hunter JE, Schmidt FL. Fixed effects vs. random effects meta-analysis models: Implications for cumulative research knowledge. International Journal of Selection and Assessment. 2000; 8(4):275–92.
  • Cheung MW. A model for integrating fixed-, random- and mixed-effects meta-analyses into structural equation modelling. Psychological Methods. 2008; 13(3):182–202.
  • Andersson LM. Employee cynicism: An examination using a contract violation framework. Human Relations. 1996; 49(11):1395–418.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.