Total views : 103

Cross-Cultural Advertising Execution Style: Past Trends and Future Directions

Affiliations

  • Department of Business Adminstration, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia

Abstract


Objectives: To provide a comprehensive review of cross-cultural advertising content literature and synthesize the conclusions of research studies of cross-cultural execution styles of advertising in past years, namely during 1988-2003 period. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Sixty articles covering comparison of more than 30 countries are collected and analyzed from 18 business leading journals. The study focusses on the four most studied ad dimensions: level of information, emotional/rational appeal typology, elements of advertising appeal, and gender role portrayal. The results of past research on the ad execution styles differences between countries are conformed; with some of opposite conclusions. Findings: Results show that the ads content across countries are significantly different in the level of information, emotional/rational, and advertising appeal dimensions; and often similar with regards to gender role portrayal dimension. Cross-cultural execution styles of advertising on the three dimensions found to be generally different due to the cultural differences; these differences, however, are moderated by other factors such as product type and the lack of a uniform theoretical model for measuring cultural values across countries. Application/Improvements: A qualitative emic approach should be developed to enable establishing data equivalence, and similar sampling frames and methods in all cultural groups.

Keywords

Advertising, Ad Content, Ad Execution, Cross-Cultural Research, Literature Review.

Full Text:

 |  (PDF views: 106)

References


  • Samiee S, Jeong I. Cross-cultural research in advertising: An assessment of methodologies. Academy of Marketing Science. 1994; 22(3):205-17. Crossref
  • Karande K, Almurshidee KA, Al-Olayan FS. Advertising standardisation in culturally similar markets: Can we standardise all components? International Journal of Advertising. 2006; 25(4):489-511. Crossref
  • Resnik A, Stern BL. An analysis of information content in television advertising. Journal of Marketing. 1977; 41(1):503. Crossref
  • Mueller B. Standardization vs. specialization: An examination of westernization in Japanese advertising. Journal of Advertising Research. 1992; 32(1):15-24.
  • Weinberger MG, Spotts HE. A situational view of information content in TV advertising in the U.S. and U.K. Journal of Marketing. 1989; 53(1):89-94. Crossref
  • Keown CF, Jacobs LW, Schmidt RW, Ghymn K. Information content of advertising in the United States, Japan, South Korea, and the People’s Republic of China. International Journal of Advertising. 1992; 11(3):257-67. Crossref
  • Biswas A, Olsen JE, Carlet V. A comparison of print advertisements from the United States and France. Journal of Advertising. 1992; 21(4):73-81. Crossref
  • Lin CA. Cultural values reflected in Chinese and American television advertising. Journal of Advertising. 2001; 30(4):83-94. Crossref
  • Taylor CR, Miracle GE, Wilson RD. The impact of information level on the effectiveness of U.S. and Korean television commercials. Journal of Advertising. 1997; 26(1):1-18. Crossref
  • Al-Olayan FS, Karande K. A content analysis of magazine advertisements from the United States and the Arab world. Journal of Advertising. 2000; 29(3):69-82. Crossref
  • Rajaratnam D, Hunt JB, Madden CS. Content Analysis of U.S. and Indian Magazine Advertising. Journal of International Consumer Marketing. 1995; 8(1):93-109. Crossref
  • Ju-Pak KH. Content dimensions of web advertising: A cross-national comparison. International Journal of Advertising. 1999; 18(2):207–31. Crossref
  • Okazaki S, Rivas J. A content analysis of multinationals’ web communication strategies: Cross-cultural research framework and pre-testing. Internet Research. 2002; 12(5):380-90. Crossref
  • De Mooij M. Global Marketing and Advertising: Understanding Cultural Paradoxes. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications; 1998.
  • Albers-Miller ND, Gelb BD. Business advertising appeals as a mirror of cultural dimensions: A study of eleven countries. Journal of Advertising. 1996; 25(4):57-70. Crossref
  • Albers-Miller ND, Stafford MR. An international analysis of emotional and rational appeals in services vs goods advertising. North. 1999; 16(1):42–57. Crossref
  • Kotler P, Armstrong G. Principles of Marketing. 6th ed. NJ: Prentice-Hall; 1994.
  • Moss G, Vinten G. Choices and preferences: Testing the effect of nationality. Journal of Consumer Behaviour. 2001; 1(2):198-207. Crossref
  • Javalgi RG, Cutler BD, Malhotra NK. Print advertising at the component level: A cross-cultural comparison of the United States and Japan. Journal of Business Research. 1995; 34(2):117-24. Crossref
  • Jeon W, Franke GR, Huhmann BA, Phelps J. Appeals in Korean Magazine advertising: A content analysis and crosscultural comparison. Aisa Pacific Journal of Management. 1999; 16(2):249-58. Crossref
  • Singh N, Xhao H, Hu X. Cultural adaptation on the web: A study of American companies: Domestic and Chinese websites. Journal of Global Information Management. 2003; 11(3):63-80. Crossref
  • Bradley S, Hitchon J, Thorson E. Hard sell versus soft sell: A comparison of American and British advertising. Global and Multinational Advertising. In: Englis BD, editor. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 1994. p. 141-57.
  • Cutler BD, Javalgi RSG. A cross cultural analysis of visual components of print advertising: The United States and European community. Journal of Advertising Research. 1992 Jan/ Feb; 32:71-80
  • Wang C, Lu C, Allan KK. A content analysis of connectedness vs. separateness themes used in US and PRC print advertisements. International Marketing Review. 2001; 18(2):145-60. Crossref
  • Albers-Miller ND. Designing cross-cultural advertising research: A closer look at paired comparisons. International Marketing Review. 1996; 13(5):59-76. Crossref
  • Agrawal M. Review of a 40 year debate in international advertising: Practitioner and academician perspectives to the standardization/adaptation issue. International Marketing Review. 1995; 12(1):26-48 Crossref
  • Gerhart B. Cross cultural management research: Assumptions, evidence and suggested directions. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management. 2008; 8(3):259–74. Crossref
  • Wiles JA, Wiles CR, Tjernlund A. A comparison of gender role portrayals in magazine advertising: The Netherlands, Sweden and the USA. European Journal of Marketing. 1995; 29(11):35-49. Crossref
  • Hofstede G. The cultural relativity of the quality of life concept. The Academy of Management Review. 1984; 9(3):389-98.
  • Siu W, Au A. Women in advertising: A comparison of television advertisements in China and Singapore. Marketing Intelligence and Planning. 1997; 15(5):235-43. Crossref
  • Gilly MC. Sex roles in advertising: A comparison of television advertisements in Australia, Mexico and the United States. Journal of Marketing. 1988; 52(2):75-85. Crossref
  • Wiles CR, Tjernlund A. A comparison of role portrayal of men and women in magazine advertising in the USA and Sweden. International Journal of Advertising. 1991; 10: 259-67. Crossref
  • Sengupta S. The influence of culture on portrayals of women in television commercials: A comparison between the United States and Japan. International Journal of Advertising. 1995; 14(4):314-33. Crossref
  • Huang J. National Character and Sex Roles in Advertising. Journal of International Consumer Marketing. 1995; 7(4):81-96. Crossref
  • Wee CH, Choong ML, Tambyah SK. Sex role portrayal in television advertising: A comparative study of Singapore and Malaysia. International Marketing Review. 1995; 12(1):49-64. Crossref
  • Cutler Bob D, Javalgi RG, Lee D. The portrayal of people in magazine advertisements: The United States and Korea.
  • Journal of International Consumer Marketing. 1995; 8(2):45-58. Crossref
  • Cheng H. Holding up half of the sky? A sociocultural comparison of gender-role portrayals in Chinese and US advertising. International Journal of Advertising. 1997; 16(4):295-319. Crossref
  • Dallmann KM. Targeting women in German and Japanese magazine advertising: A difference-in-differences approach. European Journal of Marketing. 2001; 35(11/12):1320-39. Crossref
  • Kankaras M, Vermunt JK, Moors G. Measurement equivalence of ordinal items: A comparison of factor analytic, item response theory and latent class approaches. Sociological Methods and Research. 2011; 40(3):279-310. Crossref
  • Meyers Y. Target marketing and the product: Categorizing products to understand the resulting marketing communication outcome measures. Journal of Management and Marketing Research. 2010; 5:1–8.
  • Lin CA. Modeling the gratification–seeking process of television viewing. Human Communication Research. 1993; 20(2):224–44. Crossref
  • Jin C. An empirical comparison of online advertising in four countries: Cultural characteristics and creative strategies. Journal of Targeting, Measurement and Analysis for Marketing. 2010; 18(3/4):253–61. Crossref
  • De MM. Global Marketing and Advertising, understanding Cultural Paradoxes. 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage; 2010.
  • Barker GG. Cultural influences on the news: Portrayals of the Iraq War by Swedish and American media. International Communication Gazette. 2012; 74(1):3–22. Crossref

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.