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Basic Properties of Gebeng Bauxite in Accordance to IMSBC Code


  • Centre for Earth Resources Research and Management, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Earth Resource, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, Gambang - 26300, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia


Background/Objectives: Due to a case where Bulk Jupiter, which was carrying 46,400 tons of bauxite from Kuantan sank about 150 nautical miles off the coast of Vung Tau, Vietnam, with 18 fatalities and only one survivor, where liquefaction has been identified as the main cause of the capsize of the bulk cargo; has embarked the idea for this study. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Laboratory test had been done to three different locations from bauxite mines and one from stockpile in Gebeng, Kuantan to identify its basic properties; particle size distribution, moisture content, specific gravity and its morphological properties. Results are then compared with International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes (IMSBC) Code; an international standard for cargo transportation for exporting purpose to ensure those raw materials are passing the standard so that the tendency for the material to liquefy is low. Findings: From laboratory test conducted, the average value of moisture content from air-dry and oven-dry method are 20.45 % and 23.33 %, respectively. Average particles size of Kuantan Bauxite smaller than 2.5 mm is 35% means bauxite samples collected consists of fine particles more than lumps and images obtained from SEM test proved that there is abundance of fine particles attached to the bauxite ore. Application/Improvements: Referring to the IMSBC Code, it can be stated that bauxite sample collected from Gebeng mines does not qualify to be classified under Group C as its basic properties are not within the limits imposed by IMSBC Code. This is due to the presence of high fine particles which tend to absorb water more than granular particles that may lead to liquefaction to occur. Liquefaction in bulk cargoes is very dangerous since the probability for the cargoes to capsize is very high. In order to ensure the bauxite is passing the standard, ‘beneficiation’ process should be conducted to eliminate fine particles.


Basic Properties, Bauxite, Gebeng, IMSBC Code.

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