Total views : 435
Investigation of Spring Back in Air Bending of Electrogalvanized CR4 Steel
Objectives: To analyze the effects of galvanizing thickness and punch speed on spring back of CR4 steel. Methods: Galvanizing is done by electro-deposition method using an alkaline cyanide-free zinc plating system and different thickness of deposition was achieved by changing the time. Galvanizing thickness was measured by coating thickness gauge. Experiments were conducted on a universal testing machine, using various combinations of punch travel, punch speed, and sheet orientation, using the same tooling and size of the specimen. An approach to change one parameter at a time was applied. Measurement of angles was done with the help of graphics and optical profile projector. Spring back was analyzed graphically. Findings: It was observed that spring back increases with the increase of punch travel and punch speed both. With the increase of galvanizing thickness increase of spring back was observed. Application/ Improvements: These results will be useful for design engineers and manufacturing engineers since the use of galvanized steel sheets has increased and the methods of initial bent angle and galvanizing used is as per industry's current practice.
Air Bending, CR4 Steel, Electro-galvanizing, Metal Forming, Punch Speed, Spring Back
- Kalpakjian, Serope, Schmid, Steven R. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. New Delhi: Pearson Publisher; 2013. PMCid:PMC3767008
- Marciniak Z, Duncan JL, Hu SJ. Mechanics of sheet metal forming. 2nd ed. Butterworth-Heinemann, Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford; 2002. p. 93–4.PMCid:PMC2214105
- Hayashi H, Nakagawa T. Recent trends in sheet metals and their formability in manufacturing automotive panels.Journal of Materials Processing Technology. 1994; 46(34):455–87. https://doi.org/10.1016/0924-0136(94)90128-7
- Fei D, Hodgson P. Experimental and numerical studies of spring back in air v-bending process for cold rolled TRIP steels. Nuclear Engineering and Design. 2006; 236(18):1847–51. CrossRef.
- Gracia-Romeu ML, Ciurana J, Ferrer I. Spring back determination of sheet metals in air bending process based on an experimental work. Journal of Materials Processing Technology. 2007; 191(1-3):174–7. CrossRef.
- Baung MS, Abdullah SA, Saedon J. Effect of die and punch radius on spring back of stainless steel sheet metal in the air bending process. Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Science. 2015; 8:1322–31. CrossRef.
- Narayanasamy R, Padmanabhan P. Effects of material orientation on air bending of interstitial free steel sheet. Journal of Manufacturing Engineering. 2008; 3(3):163–9.
- Chen CC, Jiang CP. Grain size effect in the micro v-bending process of thin metal sheets. Materials and Manufacturing Processes. 2011; 26(1):78–83. CrossRef.
- Gupta TR, Payal HS. Effect of Tooling Parameters on Bending Force in Air Bending of CR4 steel. International Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics. 2017; 12(3):375-388.
- Kadkhodayan M, Zafarparandeh I. On the relation of equivalent plastic strain and spring back in sheet draw bending. International Journal of Material Forming. 2008; 1(S1):141–4. CrossRef.
- Khadra FA, El-Morsy AW. Prediction of spring back in the air bending process using a krigingmetamodel.Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research.2016; 6(5):1200–6.
- Chen CC. Experimental study on punch radius and grain size effects on v-bending process. Materials and Manufacturing Processes. 2014; 29(4):461–5. CrossRef.
- Kurra S, Bagade SD, Regalla SP. Deformation behavior of extra deep drawing steel in single-point incremental forming. Materials and Manufacturing Processes. 2015; 30(10):1202–9. CrossRef. https://doi.org/10.1080/1042691 4.2014.994755
- Khalatbari H, Iqbal A, Shi X, Gao L, Hussain G. Hashemipour M. High speed incremental forming process: a trade-off between formability and time efficiency. Materials and Manufacturing Processes. 2015; 30(11):1354–63. CrossRef.
- Salahshoor M, Gorji A, Jooybari MB. Analysis of the effects of tool and process parameters in hydroforming process. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Electrical, Computer, Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering (ICE2016), Dubai: Emirates; 2016 Feb. p.4–5.
- Schey JA, Dalton GM. Lubrication mechanisms in the forming of galvanized steel sheet. Journal of Material Process Technology. 1990; 24:365–74. CrossRef.
- Shackelford JF. Introduction to Materials Science for Engineers. 3rd ed. USA: MacMillan Publishing Company; 1992.
- Vasudevan D, Durairaj, Srinivasan, Rajumani,Padmanabhan, Palani. Effect of process parameters on spring back behavior during air bending of electro galvanized steel sheet. Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE A (Applied Physics & Engineering). 2011 Mar; 12(3):183–9.
- Gronostajski JZ. Behavior of coated steel sheets in forming processes. Journal of Materials Processing Technology.1995; 53(1-2):167–76. Crossref.
- Gupta AK, Kumar DR. Formability of galvanized interstitialfree steel sheets. Journal of Materials Processing Technology. 2006; 172(2):225–37. CrossRef.
- Meinders T, Konterl AWA, Meijers SE, Atzema EH, Kappert H. A sensitivity analysis on the spring back behavior of the unconstrained bending problem. International Journal of Forming Processes. 2006; 9(3):365–402. CrossRef.
- Gupta TR, Payal HS. Investigative study on bending and spring back of electro galvanized steel. Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Fusion of Science & Technology, New Delhi, India: 2016 Jan. p. 461-465.PMCid:PMC4771870
- There are currently no refbacks.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.