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Construction of a Gauge Symmetry in N - 2 Level of Open String


  • Department of Physics and Biruni Observatory, Shiraz University, P. O. Box 71454, Shiraz, Iran
  • Malek-Ashtar University of Technology, P. O. Box 11369, Tehran, Iran


Objectives: We construct new gauge symmetry in second level N=2 of open string and predict that it corresponds to a new gauge particle with same properties as photon. Methods: In literature, using a special state called spurious state has known for describing gauge symmetry in first excited level. We generalize this prescription into second excited level N=2 . Since this method is based on the fact that adding spurious state to the spectrum leads no physical consequences, it allows us to attribute gauge invariance property to the N=2 level of spectrum such that we can call this freedom gauge symmetry. Findings: In first excited state of string theory, photons associates to a symmetry called gauge symmetry. We generalize this situation to second level of spectrum. This leads us to predict that there exists a new particle which has spin 2 and act like photon i.e. it carries electromagnetic force. This new particle lives in a high energy scale which makes its detection not easy to experimentalists. We also propose that one can generalize this procedure to higher excited levels of string theory to obtain more new particles which live in open string theory energy scale. Applications/Improvements: But if someday we detect it, we can use it as a new alternative way for producing electromagnetic waves which includes a large number of applications for it for example, in telecommunication industry, medical sciences and etc.


Field Theory, Gauge Symmetry, Gauge Particles, Massive Levels, Open String, Spurious State

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