Total views : 140

Development of Mild Steel - B4C Surface Composite by Friction Stir Processing


  • Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology-Delhi, New Delhi – 110016, India


Objectives: Friction Stir Processing (FSP) is being attempted in this study to process the surface layer of mild steel and to explore the possibility of incorporating B4C particle into surface layer of mild steel to form surface composite by means of FSP technique. Methods: FSP with B4C particle was carried out on 5.0 mm mild steel and specimens 250 mm x 100 mm were processed in a single pass. The tool material used was tungsten carbide. Trial runs were carried out at different process parameters and the final parametric windows have been developed for getting the defect free surface. With optimized process parameters sound and defect free surface was made. Mechanical Properties were investigated through microstructure and hardness test. The micrographs and hardness graph have been presented and discussed in this paper. Findings: The Micrographs were taken using optical microscope at different location of the processed zone. There was distinct alteration in size and shape of the grains at different location of the processed area. Temperature in the stir zone is sufficient to convert the base material ferrite into austenite region of phase diagram. Since the recovery is slow in austenite, dynamic recrystallization occurs. The amount of deformation in friction stir processing is very large, therefore the critical condition for discontinuous dynamic recrystallization are met. This leads to very fine austenite grain formation. These fine recrystallized grains of austenite transform back into ferrite when the temperature falls down. Macro hardness test was also done using the Vickers hardness test. It was found that the average hardness has increased to more than three to four times in the processed zone as compared to the parent metal. Applications: Technology developed in this study can be effectively used in several areas like mining, mineral processing, aerospace and railway industry, where surface modification is a need to reduce various losses like wear and corrosion.


Boron Carbide (B4C), Friction Stir Processing (FSP), Metal Matrix Composites, Nano Particles

Full Text:

 |  (PDF views: 106)


  • Aldajah SH, Ajayi OO, Fenske GR, David S. Effect of friction stir processing on the tribological performance of high carbon steel. Wear. 2009 Jun; 267(1-4):350–5. Crossref
  • Ma ZY, Sharma SR, Mishra RS, Mahoney MW. Microstructural modification of cast aluminum alloys via friction stir processing. Material. Science Forum. 2002 Jan; 426432:2891–6.
  • Guru PR, Khan MDF, Panigrahi SK, Janki Ram GD. Enhancing strength ductility and machinability of Al-Si cast alloy by friction stir processing. Journal of manufacturing processes. 2015; 18:67–74. Crossref
  • Karthikeyan L, Senthilkumar VS, Padhnabhan KA. On the role of process variables in the friction stir processing of cast aluminum A319 alloy. Materials and Design. 2010 Feb; 31(2):761–71. Crossref
  • Dodds S, Jones AH, Cater S. Tribological enhancement of AISI 420 martensitic stainless steel through friction stir processing. Wear. 2013 Apr-May; 302(1-2):863–77. Crossref
  • Escobar JD, Velasquez E, Santos TFA, Ramizer AJ, Lopez D. Improvement of cavitation erosion resistance of a duplex stainless steel through Friction Stir Processing (FSP). Wear. 2013 Jan; 297(1-2): 998–1005.
  • Fujisawa N, James LN, Tarrant NR, McKenzie RD, Woodard CJ, Swain VM. A novel pin-on-disk apparatus. Wear. 2003 Jan; 254(1-2):111–9. Crossref
  • Kurt A, Uygur I, Cete E. Surface modifications of aluminium by friction stir processing. Journal of Materials Processing Technology. 2011 Mar; 211(3):313–7. Crossref
  • Rajkumar K, Aravindan S. Tribological performance of microwave sintered copper- TiC-graphite hybrid composites. Tribology International. 2011; 44 (4):347−58. Crossref
  • Sathiskumar R, Dinaharan I, Murugan N, Vijay SJ. Influence of tool rotational speed on microstructure and sliding wear behavior of Cu/B4C surface composite synthesized by friction stir processing. Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China. 2015 Jan; 25(1):95–102. Crossref
  • Barmouz M, Asadi P, Besharati Givi MK, Taherishargh M. Investigation of mechanical properties of Cu/SiC composite fabricated by FSP Effect of SiC particles size and volume fraction. Materials Science and Engineering A. 2011 Jan; 528(3):1740–9. Crossref
  • Sabooni S, Karimzadeh F, Enayati MH, Ngan AHW. Frictionstir welding of ultrafine grained austenitic 304L stainless steel produced by martensitic thermomechanical processing. Materials and Design. 2015 Jul; 76:130–40. Crossref


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.