Total views : 278

Conductivity Analysis of Bi4Ti3O12 Ferroelectric Ceramic: A Comprehensive Study from the Dynamic Aspects of Hopping Conduction

Affiliations

  • Material Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
  • Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia

Abstract


Objectives: We focus solely on a comprehensive conductivity analysis of Bi4Ti3O12 ceramic, in a bid to bring seminal ideas for dielectric components, in particular frequency and temperature ranges. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The synthesis of Bi4Ti3O12 ceramic is based on a mechanical activation method. The following sintering at 1273 K ascertains the Bi4Ti3O12 appears to be of single phase crystallizes in orthorhombic form, whose conductivity is determined from the dielectric function in the context of Kramers-Kronig relation on which of this is measured in the frequency domain at varying temperatures. The evaluation of conductivity data is mainly in terms of activation energy. Findings: We find that the separately discussed dc and ac conductivities in similar manner are best isolated into two distinct temperature regions. Charge transport by hopping to the target localized states is the relevant conduction mechanism in bringing insights into the dynamic responses. Variable range and small polaron hopping models associated with the adiabatic small polaron are the decent choices, each of which explaining the dc conductions in these temperature regions. The former involves distant hops, whereas the latter denotes as nearest-neighbour hopping. The percolation treatments applied in the dc conductivity yield promising results if different percolation expressions are used. The correlation between dc and ac conductions for each temperature is irrefutably made through the Barton-Nakajima-Namikawa fitting. In frequency dependence ac regions, the thermally activated hopping carriers are transported in a correlated to a random manner between preferred sites. Performing a Summerfield ac scaling in these temperature regions leads to different scenarios in view of time-temperature superposition principle. Applications/Improvements: Further experiments are encouraged to support the hopping conduction mechanisms from another aspect in order to prompt the use as energy storage function in the electromagnetic application.

Keywords

Charge Carriers, Conductivity, Bi4Ti3O12, Ferroelectric Ceramic, Hopping Conduction.

Full Text:

 |  (PDF views: 256)

References


  • Stallinga P. Electronic transport in organic materials: comparison of band theory with percolation/(variable range) hopping theory. Advanced Materials. 2011; 23(30): 3356- 62.
  • Elbasset A, Abdi F, Lamcharfi T, Sayouri S, Abarkan M, Echatoui NS, Aillerie M. Influence of Zr on structure and dielectric behavior of BaTiO3 ceramics. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2015; 8(13):16.
  • Megriche A, Lebrun L, Troccaz M. Materials of Bi4Ti3O12 type for high temperature acoustic piezo-sensors. Sensor Actuators A: Physical.1999; 78(2-3): 8891.
  • Jardiel T, Caballero AC, Villegas M. Aurivillius ceramics: Bi4Ti3O12-based piezoelectrics. Journal of the Ceramic Society Japan. 2008; 116(1352):511-18.
  • Benedek NA, Rondinelli JM, Djani H, Ghosez P, Lightfoot P. Understanding ferroelectricity in layered perovskites: new ideas and insights from theory and experiments. Dalton Transactions. 2015; 44(23):10543-58.
  • Oliveira RC, Cavalcante LS, Sczancoski JC, Aguiar EC, Espinosa JWM, Varela JA, Pizani PS, Longo E. Synthesis and photoluminescence behaviour of Bi4Ti3O12 powders obtained by the complex polymerization method. Journal of Alloy Compounds. 2009; 478(1-2):66-70.
  • Xu G, Yang YR, Bai HW, Wang JW, Tian H, Zhao RY, Wei X, Yang X, Han GR. Hydrothermal synthesis and formation mechanism of the single-crystalline Bi4Ti3O12 nanosheets with dominant (010) facets. Cryst. Eng. Comm. 2016; 18(13): 2268-74.
  • Bernard H, Lisińska CA, Dzik J, Osińska K, Czekaj D. Fabrication, structural, and ac impedance studies of layer-structured Bi4Ti3O12 ceramics. Archives of Metallurgy Materials. 2012; 56(4):1137-48.
  • Song CH, Kim M, Lee SM, Choi HW, Yang YS. Impedance analysis and low-frequency dispersion behaviour of Bi4Ti3O12 glass. Journal of the Korean Physical Society. 2010; 56(1):462-66.
  • Mao XY, Wang W, Sun H, Chen XB. Anisotropic ferro- and dielectric properties of textured Bi4Ti3O12 ceramics prepared by the solid-state reaction based on multiple calcination. Advances in Materials Science Engineering. 2010; 2010:6.
  • Osińska K, Lisińska-Czekaj A, Bernard H, Dzik J, Adamczyk M, Czekaj D. Dielectric properties of bismuth ferrite-bismuth titanate ceramic composite. Archives of Metallurgy Materials. 2012; 56(4):1093-104.
  • Sheikha L, Dalal N, Moussab H, Ahmed Z, Luigi C, Kazuhiro T. Determination of the electronic, dielectric, and optical properties of sillenite Bi12TiO20 and perovskite-like Bi4Ti3O12 materials from hybrid first-principle calculations. The Journal of Chemical Physics. 2016; 144(13).
  • Macedo ZS, Ferrari CR, Hernandes AC. Impedance spectroscopy of Bi4Ti3O12 ceramic produced by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis technique. Journal of the European Ceramic Society. 2004; 24(9):2567-74.
  • Nahid A, Saber N, Musa B. Applying capacitance/inductance measurements for characterizing oil debris and pH. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2016; 9(28):1-5.
  • Tripathi N, Thakur AK, Shukla A, Marx DT. Ion transport study in polymer-nanocomposite films by dielectric spectroscopy and conductivity scaling. Physica B: Condensed Matter. 2015; 468469(1-2): 506.
  • Kim JS. Effects of Nb doping on the dielectric and the electrical properties of Bi4Ti3O12 ceramics. Journal of the Korean Physical Society. 2003; 43(6):1081-86.
  • Devan RS, Lokare SA, Patil DR, Chougule SS, Kolekar YD, Chougule BK. Electrical conduction and magneto-electric effect of (x) BaTiO3 + (1x) Ni0.92Co0.03Cu0.05Fe2O4 composites in ferroelectric rich region. Journal of Physics and Chemistry Solids. 2006; 67(7):1524-30.
  • Triberis GP, Friedman LR. A percolation treatment of the conductivity for the high-temperature small-polaron hopping regime in disordered systems. Journal of Physics C: Solid State Physics.1981; 14(31): 4631-39.
  • Triberis GP. Small polaron hopping and transport properties of As-Te based glasses. Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids. 1986; 87(1-2):86-92.
  • Pautmeler L, Ichert R, Bässler H. Anomalous time-independent diffusion of charge carriers in a random potential under a bias field. Philosopical Magazine part B.1991; 63(3):587-601.
  • Peddigari M, Thota S, Pamu D. Dielectric and ac-conductivity studies of Dy2O3 doped (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 ceramics. AIP Advances. 2014; 4(8):1-12.
  • Triberis GP, Simserides C, Karavolas VC. Small polaron hopping transport along DNA molecules. Journal of Physics-Condensed Matter. 2005; 17(17):2681-90.
  • Dimakogianni M, Triberis GP. The effect of correlations on the non-ohmic behaviour of the small-polaron hopping conductivity in 1D and 3D disordered systems. Journal of Physics-Condensed Matter. 2010; 22(35):355-405.
  • Thamilselvan M, Premnazeer K, Mangalaraj D, Narayandass SK. Field and temperature-dependent electronic transport parameters of amorphous and polycrystalline GaSe thin films. Physica B Condensed Matter. 2003; 337(1-4):404-12.
  • Austin IG, Mott NF. Polarons in crystalline and non-crystalline materials. Advances in Physics. 1969; 18(71):41-102.
  • Memon A, Tanner DB. Physical and dielectric properties of Bi4xRxSr3Ca3Cu2O10 glasses (x= 0.5 and R= Ag, Ni). Journalof Materials Science.1999; 34(16):3853-58.
  • Holstein T. Studies of polaron motion: part II. the ‘small’ polaron. Annalsof Physics, 1959; 8(3):343-89.
  • Miller A, Abrahams E. Impurity conduction at low concentrations. Physical Review. 1960; 120(3):745-55.
  • Yildiz A, Iacomi F, Mardare D. Polaron transport in TiO2 thin films. Journal of Applied Physics. 2010; 108(8):1-8.
  • Jung WH. Adiabatic small polaron hopping conduction in La0.7Nd0.3Mn0.8Cr0.2O3. Physica B: Condensed Matter. 2009; 404(14-15):1953-56.
  • Millis AJ, Shraiman BI, Mueller R. Dynamic Jahn-Teller effect and colossal magneto resistance in La1xSrxMnO3. Physical Review Letters. 1996; 77(1):1-75.
  • Triberis GP, Friedman LR. The effect of correlations on the study of thermo power for the small polaron hopping regime in disordered systems. Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids. 1986; 79(1-2):29-40.
  • Mott NF, Davis EA. Electronic process in non-crystalline materials. Clarendon Press Oxford: New York, 1979.
  • Yildiz A, Lisesivdin SB, Kasap M, Mardare D. High temperature variable-range hopping conductivity in undoped TiO2 thin film. Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials. 2007; 1(10):531-33.
  • Ponnambalam V, Varadaraju UV. Observation of variable-range hopping up to 900 K in YLaxBa2xCu3O7δ system. Phys Review B: Condensed Matter. 1995; 52(22):16213-16.
  • Greaves GN. Small polaron conduction in V2O5-P2O5 glasses. Journal of Non-Crystals Solids. 1973; 11(5):427-46.
  • Rout SK, Hussian A, Lee JS, Kim IW, Woo SI. Impedance spectroscopy and morphology of SrBi4Ti4O15 ceramics prepared by soft chemical method. Journal of Alloy and Compounds. 2009; 477(1-2):706-11.
  • Kamimura H, Mott NF. The variable range hopping induced by electron spin resonance in n-type silicon and germanium. Journal of Physics Society of Japan. 1976; 40(5):1351-58.
  • Mott NF. Conduction in non-crystalline systems. Philos Magazine. 1968; 17(150):1269-84.
  • Tessler N, Preezant Y, Rappaport N, Roichman Y. Charge transport in disordered organic materials and its relevance to thin-film devices: a tutorial review. Advanced Materials. 2009; 21(27):2741-61.
  • Kannan B, Seshadri PR, Ilangovan K, Murugakoothan P. Dielectric studies of lanthanum and cerium doped sulphamic acid single crystals. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2014; 7(3):1-4.
  • Nongjai R, Khan S, Kandasami A, Ahmed H, Khan I. Magnetic and electrical properties of in doped cobalt ferrite nanoparticles. Journal of Applied Physics. 2012; 112(8).
  • Winie T, Arof AK. Dielectric behaviour and ac conductivity of LiCF3SO3 doped H-chitosan polymer films. Ionics. 2004; 10(3):193-99.
  • Tsonos C, Kanapitsas A, Kechriniotis A, Petropoulos N. Ac and dc conductivity correlation: the coefficient of Barton-Nakajima-Namikawa relation. Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids. 2012; 358(14):1638-43.
  • Psarras GC. Hopping conductivity in polymer matrix-metal particles composites. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing. 2006; 37(10):1545-53.
  • Mariappan CR, Govindaraj G. Conductivity dispersion and scaling studies in Na3M2P3O12 orthophosphate (M2= Fe2, TiCd, TiZn). Physica B: Condensed Matter. 2004; 353(1-2):65-74.
  • Miao J, Xu XG, Jiang Y, Cao LX, Zhao BR. Ionized-oxygen vacancies related dielectric relaxation in heteroepitaxial K0.5Na0.5NbO3/La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 structure at elevated temperature. Applied Physics Letters. 2009; 95(13):3.
  • Bucharesky EC, Pötzschke RT, Staikov G, Budevski E, Lorenz WJ, Wiesbeck W. Frequency dispersion of the ionic conductivity of RbAg4I5 at low temperatures. Solid State Ionics. 1999; 124(1-2):101-08.
  • Dyre JC, Shrøder TB. Universality of ac conduction in disordered solids. Reviews of Modern Physics. 2000; 72:873-92.
  • Ladhar A, Arous M, Kaddami H, Raihane M, Kallel A, Graςa MPF, Costa LC. Ac and dc electrical conductivity in natural rubber/nanofibrillated cellulose nanocomposites. Journal of Molecular Liquids. 2015; 209:272-79.
  • Elliott SR. Ac conduction in amorphous chalcogenide and pnictide semiconductors. Advances in Physics. 1987; 36(2):135-37.
  • Summerfield S. Universal low-frequency behaviour in the Ac hopping conductivity of disordered systems. Philosopical MagazinePart B. 1985; 52(1): 9-22.
  • Kumar MP, Sankarappa T, Devidas GB, Sadashivaiah PJ. Ac conductivity in Li2O and Li2O-K2O doped vanadotellurite glasses. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 2009; 2(1): 012-050.
  • Kumar MM, Ye ZG. Scaling of conductivity spectra in the acceptor-doped ferroelectric SrBi2Ta2O9. Physical Review B. 2005; 72(2): 024-104.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.