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Investigation into the Effects of Crude Oil on Foam Stability by using Different Low Salinity Water


  • Department of Petroleum Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP), Bandar Seri Iskandar - 32610, Tronoh, Perak, Malaysia


Objectives: To find the surfactant aqueous solution that will ultimately reduce the IFT and form a more stable solution in presence of oil. Methods/Analysis: Each test was performed at 80oC. The Low Salinity Water (LSW) consisted of thirtyone samples with different ion compositions and concentrations ranging from 500 to 6500 ppm. The surfactant aqueous solutions were prepared by mixing proportions of surfactant with each of the LSW aqueous solutions. For Interfacial Tension (IFT) and Foam Stability Test (FST), two types of crude oil with different Total Acid Number and Total Base Number were used. Findings: The experimental results revealed that for both crude oils A and B, the surfactant solution with LSW composed of monovalent ions of sodium and potassium caused much changes in the IFT and were characterized with stable foam columns as compared to the divalent cations of magnesium, Calcium, as well as the mixture compositions. However, changes for crude oil B (lower TAN and higher TBN) were greater than for crude oil A (higher TAN and lower TBN). Similar results were observed for AST. The formation water presented poor results for all the tests. Novelty/Improvement: This paper is very important in a way that attempts to produce a foam formulation that will remain stable even in the presence of oil; a study never performed before. Moreover, the obtained results are valuable for further lying down the truth behind the effects of LSW on the IFT, AST, and FST. Furthermore, it applies a good approach when using two different types of light crude oils for the IFT and FST.


Acid Number, Base Number, Interfacial Tension.

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