Total views : 332

The Influence of Various Toxic Effects on the Cornea and Lens Induced by Carbon Tetrachloride in Mice and the Antioxidant Effects of Spirulina platensis

Affiliations

  • Research Institute of Ophthalmology, Egypt
  • Marine Biotechnology and Natural Products Lab, the National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Egypt

Abstract


Objective: The present study was directed to examine the toxicity of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in ocular tissues of Swiss Albino mice and the strong antioxidant beneficial effects of Spirulina platensis. Methods/Analysis: Na+-K+ATPase measurement was done on the lens membrane. Soluble lens proteins were extracted and the following techniques were made: evaluation of total soluble protein and gel filtration chromatography. Likewise, the corneal protein secondary structure was evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). For comparison between multiple groups, analysis of variance was used with significance level set at P < 0.001. Finding: The results demonstrated a decrease in total soluble lens protein and Na+-K+ATPase activity, increase in molecular weight of all lens protein fractions and there are different structural and conformational changes in cornea after injection of CCl4. These changes were reduced in pretreated mice with Spirulina. Novelty/Improvement: Our study clearly concluded that Spirulina platensis shows a protective effect on the lens and cornea through its antioxidant activity on CCl4-induced toxicity in mice.

Keywords

Antioxidant, Carbon Tetrachloride, Cornea, Lens, Spirulina.

Full Text:

 |  (PDF views: 333)

References


  • (HSDB) Hazardous Substances Data Bank. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda (MD) (CDROM version). Denver (CO): Micromedex, Inc.; 1994. (Edition expires 1/31/94).
  • Shenoy KA, Somayaji SN, Bairy KL. Hepatoprotective effects of Ginkgo biloba against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic injury in rats. Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 2001; 33:260–6.
  • Khan RA. Protective effects of Sonchus asper (L.) Hill, (Asteraceae) against CCl4-induced oxidative stress in the thyroid tissue of rats. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2012; 12:181.
  • Yoshioka H, Usuda H, Nonogaki T, Onosaka S. Carbon tetrachloride-induced lethality in mouse is prevented by multiple pretreatment with zinc sulfate. The Journal of Toxicological Sciences. 2016; 41(1):55–63.
  • Sapp J. The prokaryote-eukaryote dichotomy meanings and mythology. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. 2005; 69(2):292–305.
  • Komárek J, Hauer T. Worldwide electronic publication. University of South Bohemia and Institute of Botany AS CR; CyanoDB.cz - On-line database of cyanobacterial genera; 2009.
  • Vonshak A. Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira): Physiology, cell-biology and biotechnology. London: Taylor & Francis; 1997. p. 233.
  • Gershwin ME, Belay A. Spirulina in human nutrition and health. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2008.
  • Serban MC, Sahebkar A, Dragan S. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of Spirulina supplementation on plasma lipid concentrations. Clinical Nutrition. 2015 Sep 25.
  • Khan Z, Bhadouria P, Bisen PS. Nutritional and therapeutic potential of Spirulina. Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology. 2005; 6(5):373–9.
  • Karkos PD, Leong SC, Karkos CD, Sivaji N, Assimakopoulos DA. Spirulina in clinical practice: Evidence-based human applications. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2011; 2011:1–4.
  • Kulshreshtha A, Zacharia AJ, Jarouliya U, Bhadauriya P, Prasad GB, Bisen PS. Spirulina in health care management. Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology. 2008; 9(5):400–5.
  • Ashgan AA, Haiam MA, Eman MA, Ahemd EM, Ola KS. Hepatoprotective, DNA damage prevention and antioxidant potential of Spirulina platensis on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2015; 2(3):29–34 14. Bowler K, Tirri R. The temperature characteristic of synaptic membrane ATPase from immature and adult rat brain. Journal of Neurochemistry. 1974; 23(3):611–13.
  • Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ. Protein measurement with the folin phenol reagent. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 1951; 193(1):265–75.
  • Andrews P. Estimation of molecular size and molecular weights of biological compounds by gel filtration. Methods of Biochemical Analysis, Glick D, editor, Interscience Publishers, New York, London. 1970; 18:1–53.
  • Eman MA, Eman SM. Effect of infrared radiation on the lens. Indian Journal of Ophthalmology. 2011 Mar–Apr; 59(2):97–101.
  • Dovbeshko GI, Gridina NY, Kruglova EB, Pashchuk OP. FTIR spectroscopy studies of nucleic acid damage. Talanta. 2000; 53(1):233–46.
  • Cabrera MP, Chihuailaf RH. Antioxidants and the integrity of ocular tissues. Veterinary Medicine International. 2011; 2011:1–8.
  • Delaney B, Strom SC, Collins S, Kaminski NE. Carbon tetrachloride suppresses T-cell-dependent immune responses by induction of transforming growth factor-β1. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 1994; 126(1):98–107.
  • Ahmed FF, Cowan DL, Sun AY. Detection of free radical formation in various tissues after acute carbon tetrachloride administration in gerbil. Life Sciences. 1987; 41(22):2469–75.
  • Ohta Y, Nishida K, Sasaki E, Kongo M, Ishiguro I. Attenuation of disrupted active oxygen metabolism with the recovery of acute liver injury in rats intoxicated with carbon tetrachloride. Research Communications in Molecular Pathology and Pharmacology. 1997; 95(2):191–207.
  • Thangeeswari T, George AT, Kumar AA. Optical properties and FTIR studies of cobalt doped ZnO nanoparticles by simple solution method. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2016 Jan; 9(1).
  • Sahreen S, Khan MR, Khan RA, Alkreathy HM. Cardioprotective role of leaves extracts of Carissa opaca against CCl4 induced toxicity in rats. BMC Research Notes. 2014 Apr; 9(7):224.
  • Haris PI, Chapman. Analysis of polypeptide and protein structures using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Methods in Molecular Biology. 1994; 22:183–202.
  • Kapoor R, Mehta U. Effect of supplementation of blue green alga (Spirulina) on outcome of pregnancy in rats. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 1993; 43(1):29–35.
  • Salazar M, Chamorro GA, Salazar S, Steele CE. Effect of Spirulina maxima consumption on reproduction and peri- and postnatal development in rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 1996; 34(4):353–9.
  • Hutadilok-Towatana N, Reanmongkol W, Satitit S, Panichayupakaranant P, Ritthisunthorn P. A subchronic toxicity study of Spirulina platensis. Food Science and Technology Research. 2008; 14(4):351–8.
  • Tobón-Velasco JC, Palafox-Sánchez V, Mendieta L, García E, Santamaría A, Chamorro-Cevallos G, Limón ID. Antioxidant effect of Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima in a neurotoxic model caused by 6-OHDA in the rat striatum. Journal of Neural Transmission (Vienna). 2013 Aug; 120(8):1179–89.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.