Total views : 461

Sustainable Units for Structural Masonry


  • Department of Civil Engineering, Jain University, Bengaluru – 560069, Karnataka, India
  • Department of Civil Engineering, RV College of Engineering, Affiliated to VisvesvarayaTechnological University, Bengaluru – 560059, Karnataka, India


Background/Objectives: To determine the basic properties of masonry units, modulus of elasticity and to evaluate the masonry efficiency for the different h/t ratios of the masonry prisms and wallets. Methods/Statistical analysis: The geopolymer blocks were cured in open air temperature. These blocks were tested for water absorption & initial rate of water absorption, dry density, dimensionality, compression strength, flexural strength, and bond-strength with & without lateral confinement and modulus of elasticity. Rendered and unrendered geopolymer solid block and hollow prisms were cast and tested using cement mortar for the different h/t ratios and wallets were tested for compression. Findings: It was found that the basic properties of geopolymer masonry units were well within the limits prescribed the relevant codes of practice. Flexural strength and bond strength of geopolymer blocks prisms was more due to the good bonding between the blocks and the mortar joints. The masonry efficiency is increases with decrease in h/t ratios. There will be no much difference between rendered and unrendered masonry efficiency block prisms. The performance of the axial and eccentrically loaded wallette was found to be superior compared to the conventional cement block masonry. They satisfy the requirements of IS 2185:2008 (part 4). Application/Improvements: These geopolymer masonry units were used as structural masonry units due to the good compressive strength and performance.


Fly ash, GGBFS, M-Sand, masonry units, efficiency, Strength

Full Text:

 |  (PDF views: 475)


  • Mahendran K, Arunachelam N. Performance of Fly Ash and Copper Slag based Geopolymer Concrete. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2016 Jan; 9(2). Doi no:10.17485/ijst/2016/v9i2/86359
  • Devaki H, Gomathi Priya P. Corrosion Studies using Zeolite Synthesized from Fly Ash. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2016 May; 9(20). Doi no: 10.17485/ijst/2016/ v9i20/93147
  • Sanjukta Sahoo B. Das AK, Rath B, Kar B. Acid, Alkali and Chloride Resistance of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2015 Aug; 8(18). Doi no:10.17485/ijst/2015/v8i19/72266
  • Senapati AK, Mishra PC, Routray BC, Ganguly RI. Mechanical Behavior of Aluminium Matrix Composite Reinforced with Untreated and Treated Waste Fly Ash. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2015 May; 8(S9). Doi no:10.17485/ijst/2015/v8iS9/54838.
  • Fódi A, Bódi I. Basics of reinforced masonry. Concrete Structures. 2011; 3(1):69-77.
  • Radhakrishna, Shashishankar A, Udayashankar BC, Renuka Devi MV. Compressive Strength Assessment of Geopolymer Composites by a Phenomenological Model. Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites. 2010; 29(6):840-52.
  • Radhakrishna. A Phenomenological Model to Re-Proportion Geopolymer Compressed Blocks. Concrete Technology Today. 2008; 7(3):46-48.
  • Radhakrishna, Renuka Devi MV, Udayashankar BC. Use of fly ash in Construction Industry for sustainable development. Journal of Environmental Research and Development. 2009; 3:1211-21.
  • Radhakrishna, Shashishankar A, Udayashankar BC. Analysis and Assessment of Strength Development in Class F Fly Ash Based Compressed Geopolymer Blocks. Indian Concrete Journal. 2008; 82(8):31-37.
  • Radhakrishna, Shashishankar A, Udayashankar BC. Phenomenological Models to Proportion Geopolymer Compressed Blocks. The 33rd Conference on Our World in Concrete and Structures, Singapore; 2008. p.1-11.
  • Radhakrishna, Manjunath GS, Giridhar C, Jadav M. Strength Development in Geopolymer pastes and Mortars. International Journal of Earth Sciences. 2011; 4(6):830-34.
  • Drysdale RG, Hamid A. Masonry structures behaviour and design, Third edition, Mcmaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, 2008.
  • Vijay DM, Menon PA, Shahanas F. Environmental pollution from brick making operations and their effect on workers. Biomarkers. 2001; 4(3):162-66.
  • Sarangapani G, Reddy BV. Jagadish Structural characteristics of bricks, mortars and masonry. Journal of Structural Engineering. 2002 July-Sep; 2(29):101-07.
  • Sarangapani G, Reddy BV, Jagadish KS. Brick-Mortar Bond and Masonry Compressive Strength. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering. Apr-2005; 17(2): 229-37.
  • Reddy V, Lal R, Rao KSN. Influence of joint thickness and mortar-block elastic properties on the strength and stresses developed in soil-cement block masonry. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering. 2009; 21(10):535-42.
  • Brencich A, Corradi C, Gambarotta L. Eccentrically loaded brickwork: theoretical and experimental results. Journal of Engineering Structures. 2008; 30(12):3629-43.
  • Climate change and the cement industry Cement Trends. GCL-Environmental Special Issue; 2002 May-27. p. 1-5.
  • Davidovits J. Properties of geopolymer cements, Proceedings of Kiev state technical university conference, Ukraine; 1994. p. 131-49.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.