Total views : 515

Planning and Coordination of Relays in Distribution System


  • Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Mohamed Sathak A.J. College of Engineering, Chennai - 603103, Tamil Nadu, India


Background/Objectives: A protective relay should proficiently distinguish between fault, normal and abnormal environments. The prime aim is to plan and coordinate the relays effectively during power system faults. Methods/Statistical Analysis: ETAP simulation tool is adopted for appropriately operating the backup relays, after giving acceptable time discernment for operating the primary region relays. The optimal identification of relay settings for both Main and Standby Protection is achieved using Fault Current Limiters (FCL) and Coordination Time Interval (CTI). The distribution set-up of Surana industries is considered for the analysis. Findings: The early detection of fault and automatic cutting off of defected portion ensures high degree of protection and instigates proper planning in any power system network. Normally the distribution system protection involves both principal relays and standby relays. The whole distribution system is divided into numerous intersecting zones to guarantee complete protection. Protective relays must function only for the precise protection for which they are intended, without functioning for any normal and short term tolerable abnormal happenings. Hence, during the failure of primary protection, the backup relays provide protection after some indicated time interval. The modern power systems use distributed network wherein which insertion and removal of DG units are common. This disturbs the relay coordination and initiates frequent operation of standby relays. Deciding the proper time interruption for the working of backup relays decides the protection quality in distribution link. Application/Improvements: The protection coordination of distribution set-up of Surana industries are formulated in ETAP after getting the power flow results using Newton-Raphson algorithm. Results show improvement over the existing methods.


Coordination Time Interval (CTI), Distribution Network, ETAP Simulation Software, FCLs, Protection Coordination, Relay Protection.

Full Text:

 |  (PDF views: 691)


  • Zadeh MRD, Zhang Z. A New DFT-Based Current Phasor Estimation for Numerical Protective Relaying. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery. 2013 Oct; 28(4):2172-79.
  • Rama H. Faults Identification in Three-Phase Induction Motors Using Support Vector Machines. Master of Technology Management Plan II Graduate Projects. Paper 1, 2014.
  • Raj P. Load Flow and Short Circuit Analysis of 400/220 kV Substation. International Journal of Creative Research Thoughts. 2013 Apr; 1(4):1-4.
  • Rajesh K, Arjunamuthu A, Karuppasamypandiyan M, Bhuvanesh A. Power Flow Analysis of 230/110 kV Substation using ETAP. International Conference on Emerging Trends in Science, Engineering, Business and Disaster Management, 2014 Feb.
  • Kaur D, Bath SK, Sidhu DS. Short Circuit Fault Analysis of Electrical Power System Using MATLAB IOSR. Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering (IOSR-JEEE). 2014 Mar – Apr; 9(2):89–100.
  • Motlagh SHM, Mazlumi K. Optimal Over current Relay Coordination Using Optimized Objective Function. Hindawi Publishing Corporation ISRN Power Engineering. 2014; 2014:1-10.
  • Huchel L, Zeineldin HH, Planning the Coordination of Directional Over current Relays for Distribution Systems Considering DG. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid. 2015; 7(3):1642–49.
  • Yiek A, Harker K. National Grid experience with management of Multi-Functional Numerical Relay settings. 10th IET International Conference on Developments in Power System Protection (DPSP 2010), Manchester; 2010. p. 1–5.
  • Kavehnia F, Seifi H, Keivani H, Askari MR. Optimal Coordination of Directional Over Current Relays in Power System Using Genetic Algorithm. Proceedings of the 41st International Universities Power Engineering Conference, Newcastle-upon-Tyne; 2006. p.824–27.
  • Tiwari S, Pandey A. Current Transformer Sizing and Saturation Calculation with Transient Performance Analysis of CT Using ATP Software. International Journal of Advanced Research in Electrical, Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering, 2015 May; 4(5):3853–60.
  • Choudhary NK, Mohanty SR, Singh RK. Coordination of Over current Relay in Distributed System for Different Network Configuration. Journal of Power and Energy Engineering. 2015; 3:1–9.
  • Yadav M, Gupta C, Kumar SV, Hasan I. Optimal Coordination of Directional Overcurrent Relay: A Review. International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering. 2014 May; 4(5):859–62.
  • Sadegh PM, Ehsan B, Mostafa M, Dehkordi, Salami A. Optimal Coordination of Directional Over current Relay for Power Delivery System With A Hybrid Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 2011; 5(12):1949.
  • Saha D, Sengupta S. Microcontroller based automatic fault identification in a distribution system. International Conference on Communications, Devices and Intelligent Systems (CODIS), Kolkata; 2012. p. 504–07.
  • Elmitwally A, Gouda E, Eladawy S. Optimal allocation of fault current limiters for sustaining overcurrent relays coordination in a power system with distributed generation. Alexandria Engineering Journal. 2015; 54(4):1077–89.
  • Kamel A, Alaam MA, Azmy AM, Abdelaziz AY. Protection Coordination of Distribution Systems Equipped with Distributed Generation. Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ). 2013 May; 2(2):1-13.
  • Cakal G, Bagriyanik FG, Bagriyanik M. The Effect of Fault Current Limiters on Distribution Systems with Wind Turbine Generators. International Journal of Renewable Energy Research. 2013; 3(1):1–6.
  • Zayandehroodi H, Mohamed A, Shareef H, Mohammadjafari M. A Comprehensive review of protection coordination methods in power distribution systems in the presence of DG. Electrical Review. 2011; (8):142–48.
  • Javadian SAM, Massaeli M. A fault location method in distribution networks including DG. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2011; 4(11):1-6.
  • Kiran SH, Dash SS, Subramanian C, Pathy S. An Efficient Swarm Optimization Technique for Stability Analysis in IEEE-14 Bus System. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2016 Apr;, 9(13):1–6.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.