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Efficient Combinatorial Optimization Algorithm for Exploiting Modification Direction in Data Embedding


  • Faculty of Information Technology, Ton Duc Thang University, No.19 Nguyen Huu Tho Str., Ho Chi Minh city, Viet Nam
  • Department of Electronic Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea, Republic of
  • Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi, Korea, Republic of


Background/Objectives: Steganographic techniques embed a secret to host cover to conceal its content. Among several methods for data embedding, Exploiting Modification Direction (EMD), which is simple and efficient, has attracted a lot of attention lately. Methods/Statistical Analysis: However, the recent schemes based on this method have high stego-image distortion. In this paper, we employ combinatorial optimization algorithm, also known as Hungarian algorithm to reorganize the secret sequences. Findings: As a result, we can remarkably reduce the distortion and achieve the best quality of stego-image. Moreover, experimental results show that our scheme is stable under different scenarios regardless of common case, worst case, or best case. Application/Improvements: Due to the simplicity and efficiency, the method is suitable for real-time application. This method is improved further to enhance embedding capacity while remaining the image quality


Data Hiding, EMD, Hungarian Algorithm, Information Security, Optimization, Steganography.

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