Total views : 370

Evaluation on Radiation Treatment Planning According to use of Flattening Filter(FF) or Flattening Filter-Free(FFF) in High-Energy X-Ray Equipment

Affiliations

  • Department of Radiology Science, Far East University, Chungbuk, Korea, Republic of
  • Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea, Republic of

Abstract


Background/Objectives: This study focuses on radiation therapy planning according to flattening filter or flattening filterfree in high-energy X-ray therapy. Methods/Statistical Analysis: VMAT (Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy) planning was built subject to 5 patients and the CI (Conformity Index) and HI (Homogeneity Index) values were comparatively analyzed using DVH (Dose Volume Histogram). Therapy plans were made with simple fractionation for 2 patients and VMAT therapy plans according to usage of flattening filter or flattening filter-free through SBRT therapy plans were made for 3 patients. Findings: For the therapy plan for the first brain patient, CI values according to use of flattening filter or flattening filter-free were both shown to be 0.95, and HI values were shown to be 1.09 and 1.10. For the second lung cancer patients, CI values according to use of flattening filter or flattening filter-free were both shown to be 0.95, and HI values were both shown to be 1.09. For the third lung cancer patients, CI values according to use of flattening filter or flattening filter-free were shown to be 0.95 and 0.96, and HI values were shown to be 1.08 and 1.07. For the Fourth liver cancer patients, CI values according to use of flattening filter or flattening filter-free were shown to be 0.94 and 0.95, and HI values were shown to be 1.11 and 1.12. For the Fifth liver cancer patients, CI values according to use of flattening filter or flattening filter-free were shown to be 0.94 and 0.96, and HI values were shown to be 1.10 and 1.09. As a result of comparison, mean CI values according to use of flattening filter or flattening filter-free were shown to be 0.946 and 0.954(p= 0.135), and HI values were both shown to be 1.094(p=0.549). Improvements: In this study, results of radiation therapy planning according to use of flattening filter or flattening filter-free in high-energy X-ray equipment were shown to be similar and usability could be found in using flattening filter- free that can reduce therapy time by minimizing reduction of radiation output dose.

Keywords

CI (Conformity Index), DVH (Dose Volume Histogram), Flattening-Filter Free (FFF), HI (Homogeneity Index), Radiation Therapy, VMAT (Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy).

Full Text:

 |  (PDF views: 228)

References


  • Kim ST, Cho JK. Development of patient motion tracking system during radiation therapy. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2015Apr ; 8(7):379–8.
  • Prendergast BM, Fiveash JB, Popple RA, Clark GM, Thomas EM, Minnich DJ, Jacob R, Spencer SA, Bonner JA, Dobelbower MC. Flattening filter-free linac improves treatment delivery efficiency in stereotactic body radiation therapy. JACMP. 2013 May; 14(3):1–8 .
  • Kragl G, Baier F, Lutz S, Albrich D, Dalaryd M, Kroupa B, Wiezorek T, Knoos T, Georg D. Flattening filter free beams in SBRT and IMRT: Dosimetric assessment of peripheral doses. Med Phys. 2011May; 21(2):91–101.
  • Scorsetti M, Alongi F, Castiglioni S, Clivio A, Fogliata A, Lobefalo F, Mancosu P, Navarria P, Palumbo V, Pellegrini C, Pentimalli S, Reggiori G, Ascolese AM, Roggio A, Arcangeli S, Tozzi A, Vanetti E and Cozzi L. Feasibility and early clinical assessment of flattening filter free (FFF) based Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) treatments. Radiat Oncol. 2011Sep; 6:113.
  • Fogliata A, Garcia R, Knoos T, Knoos T, Nicolini G, Clivio A, Vanetti E, Khamphan C Cozzi L. Definition of parameters for quality assurance of Flattening Filter Free (FFF) photon beams in radiation therapy. Med Phys. 2012 Oct; 39(10):6455–64.
  • Navarria P, Ascolese AM, Mancosu, Alongi F, Clerici E, Tozzi A, Iftode C, Reggiori G, Tomatis S, Infante M, Alloisio M, Testori A, Fogliata A, Cozzi L, Morenghi E, Scorsetti M. Volumetric modulated arc therapy with Flattening Filter Free (FFF) beams for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) in patients with medically inoperable early stage Non Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). Radiother Oncol. 2013 Jun; 107(3):414–8.
  • Georg D, Knoos T, McClean B. Current status and future perspective of flattening filter free photon beams. Med Phys. 2011 Mar; 38(3):1280–93.
  • Cashmore J. The characterization of unflattened photon beams from a 6MV linear accelerator. Phys Med Biol. 2008 May; 53:1933–46.
  • Hrbacek J, Lang S, Klock S. Commissioning of photon beams of a flattening filter-free linear accelerator and the accuracy of beam modeling using an anisotropic analytical algorithm. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2011 Jul; 80(4):1228–37.
  • Mesbahi A. A Monte Carlo study on neutron and electron contamination of an unflattened 18-MV photon beam. Appl Radiat Isot. 2009 Jan; 67(1):55–60.
  • Raju LK, Rao KS, Das RP, Santhosh NM, Murthy SA. Passive target tracking using unscented kalman filter based on Monte Carlo Simulation. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2015 Nov; 8(29):1–7.
  • Mesbahi A, Nejad FS. Monte Carlo study on a flattening filter-free 18-MV photon beam of a medical linear accelerator. Radiat Med. 2008 Jul; 26(6):331–6.
  • Titt U, Vassiliev ON, Ponisch F, Kry SF, Mohan R. Monte Carlo study of backscatter in a flattening filter free clinical accelerator. Med Phys. 2006 Sep; 33(9):3270–3.
  • Kry SF, Titt U, Ponisch F, Vassiliev ON, Salehpour M, Gillin M, Mohan R. Reduced neutron production through use of a flattening-filter free accelerator. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2007 Jul; 68(4):1260–4.
  • Georg D, Kragl G, afWetterstedt S, McCavana P, McClean B. Photon beam quality variations of a flattening filter free linear accelerator. Med Phys. 2010 Jan; 37(1):49–53.
  • Ceberg C, Johnsson S, Lind M, Knoos T. Prediction of stopping power ratios in flattening-filter free beams. Med Phys. 2010 Mar; 37(3):1164–8.
  • Kry SF, Howell RM, Titt U, Salehpour M, Mohan R, Vassiliev ON. Energy spectra, sources, and shielding considerations for neutrons generated by a flattening filter-free Clinac. Med Phys. 2008 May; 35(5):1906–11.
  • Kry SF, Titt U, Ponisch F, Vassiliev ON, Salehpour M, Gillin M, and Mohan R. Reduced neutron production through use of a flattening-filter free accelerator. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2007; 68:1260–4.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.