Total views : 320

Embedding QR Code in the Wavelet Domain of Image for Metadata Hiding


  • Department of Computer Science and Engineering at the Korea University, Lyceum 306, Anam Campus, 145, Anam-ro Seongbuk-gu, Seoul, Korea, Republic of


Background/Objectives: The most image watermarking techniques has nearly always been implemented in red, green and blue color space. This paper provides a method for inserting the QR code in the CIEXYZ color space to store metadata information. Methods/Statistical Analysis: This paper provides new QR code watermarking technique that is included in the low-frequency sub-bands through the haar wavelet transformation to CIE XYZ color space of the color image. Independent Component Analysis was applied to the watermark signal and to insert the QR code to the low frequency band of the host image. In the QR code extraction process, QR code was to be detected even without the image. Findings: The results of several experiments indicate that the proposed method provides unambiguous detection, imperceptibility, security, and robustness against JPEG compression, median filtering, different noise and image cropping attacks. Application/Improvements: This method can be utilized to insert the metadata into the digital content. The proposed method will be developed to be more robust to various attacks in the future.


Data Hiding, Metadata, QR Code, Watermark, Watermarking, Wavelet.

Full Text:

 |  (PDF views: 264)


  • Thanikaiselvan V, Bansal Tushar, Jain Prateek, Shastri Shounak. 9/7 IWT Domain Data Hiding in Image using Adaptive and Non Adaptive Methods. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2016 Feb; 9(5). DOI: 10.17485/ijst/2016/v9i5/87189.
  • Shastri Shounak, Thanikaiselvan V. PVO based Reversible Data Hiding with Improved Embedding Capacity and Security. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2016 Feb; 9(5). DOI: 10.17485/ijst/2016/v9i5/87191.
  • Thasneem Salim PT, Vigneswaran T. FPGA Implementation of Hiding Information using Cryptography. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2015 Aug; 8(18). DOI: 10.17485/ijst/2015/v8i19/76853.
  • Halder Tanmoy, Karforma Sunil, Mandal Rupali. A Novel Data Hiding Approach by Pixel-Value-Difference Steganography and Optimal Adjustment to Secure E-Governance Documents. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2015 July; 8(16). DOI: 10.17485/ijst/2015/v8i16/51269.
  • Vidya G, Hema Preetha R, Shilpa GS, Kalpana V. Image Steganography Using Ken Ken Puzzle for Secure Data Hiding. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2014 Jan; 7(9):1403-13.
  • Yoo KS, Lee WH. Classification-based image watermarking using wavelet DC components. Imaging Science Journal. 2010; 58(2):105–11.
  • Swanson MD, Kobayashi M, Tewfik AH. Multimedia data-embedding and watermarking technologies. Proceedings of the IEEE. 1998; 86(6):1064–87.
  • Ahmidi N, Safabakhsh R. A novel DCT-based approach for secure color image watermarking. Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Technology: Coding and Computing (ITCC’04). 2004; 2:709–13.
  • Kutter M, Bhattacharjee SK, Ebrahimi T. Towards second generation watermarking schemes. Kobe, Japan: 6th International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP’99). 1999; 1:320–23.
  • Chang CP, Lee YC, Chiang AC, Huang PS, Tu TM. StarMarker – a fast and robust RGB-based saturation watermarking system for pan-sharpened IKONOS and Quickbird Imagery. Optical Engineering. 2006; 45(5): 056202:1-11.
  • Hyvarinen, Oja E. A fast fixed-point algorithm for independent component analysis. Neural Computation. 1997; 9(7):1483–92.
  • Hyvarinen A, Oja E. Independent Component Analysis: Algorithms and Applications. Neural Networks. 2000; 13(4):411–30.
  • Kefeng F, Meihua W, Wei M, Wei Z Xinhua. Novel copyright protection scheme for digital content. Journal of Systems Engineering and Electronics. 2006; 17(2):423–29.
  • Yu D, Sattar F. A New Blind Watermarking Technique based on Independent Component Analysis. Spinger-Verlag Computer Science Lecture Series. 2003; 2613:51–63.
  • Ji-Wen Lu, Er-Hu Zhang. Multiple adaptive digital watermarking method based on chaos and independent component analysis. Computer Applications. 2005; 25(12):2736–38.
  • Lewis AS, Knowles G. Image compression using the 2-D wavelet transform. IEEE Transactions on Image Processing. 1992; 1(2):244–50.
  • Huibo Hu, Huang Yu, Liu Ju, Jiande Sun. An ICA-based watermarking scheme resistant to copy attack. Suzhou, China: Proceedings of IEEE International Workshop VLSI Design & Video Technology (IWVDVT'05), May 28-30. 2005; p. 154–57.
  • Haiyan Yu. A digital watermarking scheme based on FICA and DWT. Journal of Wuhan University of Technology (Information & Management Engineering). 2006; 28(7):4–7.
  • Hien TD, Nakao Z, Chen YW. Robust RDWTICA based information hiding. Soft Comput. 2006; 10:1135–44.
  • Santhana T, Gomathi S. Representing a image using a Haar-Wavelet Transformation for human parts detection. 2014 International Conference, Information Communication and Embedded Systems (ICICES). 2014; p. 1–7.
  • Hunter, Sewall Richard. Photoelectric Color-Difference Meter. JOSA (Proceedings of the Winter Meeting of the Optical Society of America. 1948; 38(7):661.
  • Hunter, Sewall Richard. Accuracy, Precision, and Stability of New Photo-electric Color-Difference Meter. Proceedings of the Thirty-Third Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America, JOSA. 1948; 38(12):1094.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.