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Optimization of Bio Oil from Palm Oil Fronds Via Fast Pyrolysis
Background/Objectives: The composition of palm oil fronds that has a potential to produce bio oil is examined and the bio oil yields produced from pyrolysis process is optimized in Response Surface Method (RSM). The chemical components found in bio oil are identified. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Lignocellulosic biomass like palm oil fronds contains 28.36% cellulose, 19.89% hemicellulose and 22.83% lignin. The high percentage of cellulose in this biomass will give higher fraction of bio oil produced. Parameters that have been investigated in this research for the optimization are reaction temperature, reaction time and flow rate of nitrogen gas. Pyrolysis process was done in the fixed bed reactor with Central Composite Design (CCD) in RSM was used for optimization of process parameters. Findings: The optimal conditions was found at reaction temperature of 500°C, reaction time of 60 min and flow rate of nitrogen gas for 2 l/min which produced highest amount of bio oil for 19.68% g of bio oil/g of biomass feed. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis was done and shows the presence of functional group of phenol, alcohol, carboxylic acid, ketones, quinones, aldehydes, alkenes, alkanes and aromatic groups in the bio oil. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis shows that 26 chemical components present in the bio oil. Application/Improvements: Demands for fossil fuel as a source of energy is increasing every year since industry's revolution era. With this scenario, many countries in the world started to find any possible alternative source of energy to ensure the sufficient of energy supply. Bio oil is the best alternatives to replace the source of energy supply in transportation sector.
Energy Supply, Nitrogen Flow Rate, Reaction Temperature, Reaction Time, Response Surface Method.
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