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Effects of Solvents and Extraction Methods on Herbal Plants Phyllanthus niruri, Orthosiphon stamineus and Labisia pumila


  • Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi - 43600, Selangor, Malaysia
  • School of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi - 43600, Selangor, Malaysia


Background/Objectives: Phyllanthus niruri, Orthosiphon stamineus and Labisia pumila are the three herbs listed in Malaysian National Key Economic Areas (NKEA). This study was conducted to determine the herbs extract yields and activities on antioxidant and cytotoxicity properties. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Cold maceration and soxhlet were the extraction methods employed and water, ethanol and 50% ethanol (v/v) were chosen as solvents. Findings: The results showed 50% ethanol (v/v) was the best solvent for all three herbs in terms of extraction yield. For cold maceration, the extract yields were 14.3%, 17.4% and 7.6% for P. niruri, O. stamineus and L. pumila, respectively. Whilst for soxhlet method, the same trend was observed where 50% ethanol (v/v) gave the highest extract yield of 21.2%, 14.3% and 6.8% for P. niruri, O. stamineus and L. pumila, respectively. Total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity were also highest using 50% ethanol and soxhlet method for all herbs. Application/Improvements: This shows that the food-grade solvents at a certain concentration are suitable for the best extraction of selected herbs.


Labisia pumila, Maceration, Orthosiphon stamineus, Phyllanthus niruri, Soxhlet.

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