Total views : 369

The Recovery and Molecular Diagnosis of Mycoplasma gallisepticum Infection in Commercial Poultry Flocks in Egypt

Affiliations

  • Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt
  • Nanotechnology Center, Regional Center of Feed and Food, Agriculture Research Center, Egypt

Abstract


Objectives: The aim of this study to investigate MG in field cases of chronic respiratory disease (CRD) and its tissue distribution in positive cases. Methods: Polymerase Chain Reaction by different approaches was used in comparison to the culture method. The study included 385 birds, from which (1,155) samples of trachea, lung tissue and air sacs were collected from different farms of Layers, broilers and Breeders flocks located in seven governorates. Findings: Three detection methods of MG revealed that, the highest recovery rate of MG was achieved by PCR on 48 hours incubation PPLO broth (70.9%), followed by direct PCR on infected tissue (65.45%). The lowest recovery rate was for conventional cultivation method (17.66%) indicating that PCR is more sensitive. On the other hand tissue distribution pattern of MG showed higher percentage from trachea followed by air sacs then lung. Application: The PCR is superior to culture as it is rapid and sensitive for diagnosis of MG, which is compatible with surveillance and control programs of MG. Regarding tissue distribution pattern the trachea has a more privilege during diagnosis of MG infection.

Keywords

Egypt, Molecular Diagnosis, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Poultry, Recovery.

Full Text:

 |  (PDF views: 353)

References


  • Saif YM, Barnes HJ, Glisson JR, Fadly AM, McDougald LR, Swayne DE. Ames, USA: Iowa State Press: Diseases of Poultry. 12th Ed. 2003; p. 807.
  • Mohammed HO, Carpenter TE, Yamamoto R. Economic impact of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and M. synoviae in commercial layer flocks. Avian Dis. 1987; 31(1):477–82.
  • Much P, Winner F, Stripkovits L, Rosengarten R, Citti C. Mycoplasma gallisepticum: influence of cell invasiveness on the outcome of experimental infection in chickens. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 2002; 34(3):181-86.
  • Nascimento ER, Yamamoto R, Herrick KR, Tait RC. Polymerase chain reaction for detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Avian Dis. 1991; 35(1):62-69.
  • Bradbury JM. Poultry mycoplasmas: sophisticated pathogens in simple guise. British Poult. Sci. 2005; 46(2):25-136.
  • Gaunson JE, Philip CJ, Whithear KG, Browning GF. The cellular immune response in the tracheal mucosa to Mycoplasma gallisepticumin vaccinated and unvaccinated chickens in the acute and chronic stages of disease. Vaccine. 2006; 24(14):2627-33.
  • Ley DH, Yoder HW. Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection. Ames, IA, USA: Iowa State University Press: Diseases of Poultry. 9th Ed. Calnek BW, Barnes HJ, Beard CW, McDougald LR and Saif YM, Ed. 1997; p. 194-207.
  • Kleven SH. Control of avian mycoplasma infections in commercial poultry. Avian Dis. 2008; 52(3):367-74.
  • Kempf I. DNA amplification methods for diagnosis and epidemiological investigations of avian mycoplasmosis. Avian Pathol. 1998; 27(1):7–14.
  • Fan HH, Kleven SH, Jackwood MW, Johansson KE, Pettersson B, Levisohn SS. identification of avian mycoplasmas by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Avian Dis. 1995; 39(2):307–98.
  • Branton SL, Lott BD, Maslin WR, Day EJ. Fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome observed in commercial layers fed diets containing chelated minerals. Avian Dis. 1995; 39(3):631-35.
  • Kaszanyitzky E, Czifra G, Stipkovits L. Detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum antibodies in turkey blood samples by ELISA and by the slide agglutination and haemagglutination inhibition tests. Acta Vet Hung. 1994; 42(1):69-78.
  • Yamamoto R. Mycoplasma meleagridis infection. Calnek BW, Beard CW, Barnes HJ, Reid WM and Yoder HW. Diseases of Poultry, 9th edition. Ames, Iowa, Iowa State University Press: Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines, 3rd Ed. 1991; p. 512-21.
  • Yoder S. Isolation and identification of mycoplasma from respiratory system of chicken. Poult. Sci. 1991; 32(10):121–24.
  • Rauf M, Chaudhary ZI, Younus M, Anjum AA, Ali MA, Ahmed AN, Khan MUR. Identification of Mycoplasma gallisepticum by polymerase chain reaction and conventional diagnosis from white leghorn layer flocks. JAPS. 2013; 23(2):393-97.
  • Gharaibeh S, Roussan AD. The Use of Molecular Techniques in Isolation and Characterization of Mycoplasma gallisepticum from Commercial Chickens in Jordan. Int. J. Poult. Sci. 2008; 7(1):28–35.
  • Kempf I, Blanchard A, Gesbert F, Guittet M, Bennejean G. The polymerase chain reaction for Mycoplasma gallisepticum detection. Avian Pathol. 1993; 22(4):739-50.
  • Ley DH. Mycoplasma gallisepticm infection. Ames, Iowa, USA: Iowa State University press: Disease of Poultry. Saif YM, Barnes HJ, Glisson JR, Fadly AM, McDougald LR and Swayne DE, Ed. 2001; p. 722-44.
  • Gondal MA, Rabbani M, Muhammad K, Yaqub T, Babar ME, Sheikh AA, Ahmad A, Shabbir MZ, Khan MI. Characterization of Mycoplasma gallisepticum isolated from commercial poultry Flocks. JAPS. 2015; 25(1):108.
  • Razin S, Oliver O. Morphogenesis of Mycoplasma and bacterial L-form colonies. J Gen Microbiol. 1961 Feb; 24:225–37.
  • Garcia M, Ikuta N, Levisohn S, Kleven SH. Evaluation and comparison of various PCR methods for detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in chickens. Avian Dis. 2005; 49(1):125–32.
  • Hyman HC, Levisohn S, Yogev D, Razin S. DNA probes for Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae application in experimentally infected chickens. Vet. Microbiol. 1989; 20(4):323-37.
  • Kleven SH, Levisohn S. Mycoplasma infections of poultry. New York: Academic Press, Inc.: J.G. Tully Molecular and Diagnostic Procedures in Mycoplasmology. Diagnostic Procedures, 1996; II:283-92.
  • Levisohn S, Dykstra MJ. A quantitative study of single and mixed infection of the chicken trachea by Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Avian Diseases. 1987; 31(1):1–12.
  • Yagihashi T, Tajima M. Antibody responses in sera and respiratory secretions from chickens infected with Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Avian Diseases. 1986; 30(3):543–50.
  • Levisohn S, Kleven SH. Avian mycoplasmosis (Mycoplasma gallisepticum). Rev Sci Tech. 2000; 19(2):425-42.
  • Migaki TT, Avakian AP, Barnes HJ, Ley DH, Tanner AC, Magonigle RA. Efficacy of danofloxacin and tylosin in the control of mycoplasmosis in chicks infected with tylosin susceptible or tylosin-resistant field isolates of Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Avian Dis. 1993; 37(2):508–14.
  • Branton SL, Deaton JW. Egg production, egg weight, eggshell strength, and mortality in three strains of commercial layers vaccinated with F strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Avian Disease. 1985; 29(3):832–37.
  • Buim MR, Mettifogo E, Timenetsky J, Kleven S and Antonio J Piantino Ferreira. Epidemiological survey on Mycoplasma gallisepticum and M. synoviae by multiplex PCR in commercial poultry. Pesq. Vet. Bras. Rio de Janeiro. 2009; 29(7).
  • Timenetsky J, Santos LM, Buzinhani M, Mettifogo E. Detection of multiple mycoplasma infection in cell cultures by PCR. Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. 2006; 39(7):907-14.
  • Ehtisham S, Rahman SU, Siddique M, Qureshi AS. Involvement of Mycoplasma synoviae in respiratory distress cases of broilers. Pak. Vet. J. 2011; 31(2):117-19.
  • Siddique AB, Rahman SU, Hussain I, Muhammad G. Frequency distribution of opportunistic avian pathogens in respiratory distress Cases of poultry. Pak. Vet. J. 2012; 32(3):386-89.
  • Nascimento ERD, Nascimento MDGFD, Santos MWD, Dias PGDO, Resende ODA, Silva RDCF. Eradication of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and M. synoviae from a chicken flock by antimicrobial injections in eggs and chicks. E.R. d. Nascimento. Acta Scientiae Veterinariae. 2005; 33(2):119-24.
  • Feberwee A, Mekkes DR, de-Wit JJ, Hartman EG, Pijpers A. Comparison of culture, PCR, and different serologic tests for detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae infections. Avian Dis. 2005; 49(2):260-68.
  • Ferguson NM, Hepp D, Sun S, Ikuta N, Levisohn S, Kleven SH, Garcia M. Use of molecular diversity of Mycoplasma gallisepticum by gene-targeted sequencing (GTS) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis for epidemiological studies. Microbiol. 2005; 151(pt 6):1883-93.
  • Callison SA, Riblet SM, Sun S, Ikuta N, Hilt D, Leiting V, Kleven SH, Suarez DL, Garcia M. Development and validation of a real time Taqman polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in naturally infected birds. Avian Dis. 2006; 50(4):537-44.
  • Hess M, Neubauer C, Hackl R. Interlaboratory comparison of ability to detect nucleic acid of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae by polymerase chain reaction. Avian Pathol. 2007; 36(2):127-33.
  • Raviv Z, Ferguson NN, Laibinis V, Wooten R, Kleven SH. Role of Mycoplasma synoviae in commercial layer, Escherichia coli Peritonitis Syndrome. Avian Dis. 2007; 51(3):685-90.
  • Evans JD, Leigh SA. Differentiation of Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine strains ts-11 and 6/85 from commonly used Mycoplasma gallisepticum challenge strains by PCR. Avian. Dis. 2008; 52(3):491-97.
  • Liu T, Garcia M, Levisohn S, Yogev D, Kleven SH. Molecular variability of the adhesion encoding gene pvpA among Mycoplasma gallisepticum strains and its application in diagnosis. J. Clini. Microbiol. 2001; 39(5):1882-88.
  • Pharr GT, Branton SL, Hanson LA, Minion FC, Hughlett MB, Wan X. Characterization of pMGA Genes from the F Strain (Vaccine Strain) of Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Inter. J. Poult. Sci. 2002; 1(4):63-73.
  • Kleven SH, Fulton RM, Garcia M, Ikuta VN, Leiting VA, Liu T. Molecular characterization of Mycoplasma gallisepticum isolates from turkeys. Avian Dis. 2004; 48(3):562-69.
  • Barbour EK, Shaib HA, Jaber LS, Talhouk SN. Standardization and evaluation of random replication of polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction in subspecies typing of Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Intl. J. Appl. Res. Vet. Med. 2005; 3(1):222-27.
  • Lysnyansky I, Garcia M, Levisohn S. Use of MGc2-polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism for rapid differentiation between field isolates and vaccine strains of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in Israel. Avian Dis. 2005; 49(2):238-45.
  • Lierz M, Hagen N, Harcourt-Brown N, Hernandez-Divers SJ, Hafez HM. Prevalence of mycoplasma in eggs from birds of prey using culture and a genus specific mycoplasma polymerase chain reaction. Avian. Pathol. 2007; 36(2):145-50.
  • Ghorashi SA, Noormohammadi AH, Markham PF. Differentiation of Mycoplasma gallisepticum strains using PCR and high-resolution melting curve analysis. Microbiol. 2010; 156(1):1019-29.
  • Nazarpak H, Pourbakhsh SA, Charkhkar S, Sheikhi N, Ashtari A. Isolation and detection of Mycoplasma synoviae from seropositive rapid reaction broiler breeder flocks by polymerase chain reaction and culture methods. Vet. Res. Bull. 2010; 6(1):31-35.
  • Khalifa R, Eissa S, El-Hariri M, Refai M. Sequencing Analysis of Mycoplasma gallisepticum Wild Strains in Vaccinated Chicken Breeder Flocks. J Mol. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2014; 24(2):98–104.
  • Jordan FTW. People, poultry and pathogenic mycoplasmas. Brit. Poult. Sci. 1985; 2, 1990; 6(3):1-15.
  • Abdullahi Umar Faruk, Naim Rochman, Wan Taib Wan Rohani, Saleh Ahmadu, Muazu Anas, Aliyu Sani, Baig Atif Amin. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP). An Innovation in Gene Amplification: Bridging the Gap in Molecular Diagnostics; A Review. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2015 Aug; 8(17). DOI: 10.17485/ijst/2015/v8i17/55767.
  • Ahmed Minhaz Uddin, Saito Masato, Mosharaff Hossain M, Hase Atsushi, Tamiya Eiichi. Polydimethylsiloxane Based Microfluidics Flow PCR Sensor for BacillusAnthracis Using a Disposable Electrode. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2014 Jan; 7(8). DOI: 10.17485/ijst/2014/v7i8/39743.
  • Osman KM and Elhariri M. Antibiotic resistance of Clostridium perfringens isolates from broiler chickens in Egypt. Rev. Sci. Tech. Off. Int. Epiz. 2013; 32(3):841-50.
  • Vanitha A, Premkumar A, Chandra S, Tamil Selvi R. A First Report on Isolation of DNA in Bryocladia thwaitesii (Harvey Ex J. Agardh) Detoni (red Alga) Using Nano Vue Uv Spectrophotometer Suitable for Molecular Biological Studies. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2011 Mar; 4(3). DOI: 10.17485/ijst/2011/v4i3/29996.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.