Total views : 261

Assessment of Textural Properties of Brown Rice based Ready to Eat Extrudate Snacks Blended with Water Chestnut and Safed Muesli Powder


  • Post Harvest Process and Food Engineering, College of Agricultural Engineering, JNKVV, Jabalpur - 482004, Madhya Pradesh, India


Objective: The main objective of this finding was to assess the textural properties of brown rice based ready to eat extrudate snacks blended with water chestnut and safed muesli powder. Method/Statistical Analysis: Extrusion cooking technology was used for the production of extruded snacks. In this research work, the effects of feed parameters i.e. feed moisture (10- 18 %), blend ratio of brown rice:water chestnut flour: safed muesli powder (80:18:2–80:10:10) and machine parameters of single screw extruder i.e. screw speed (120-200 rpm), barrel temperature (120-2000C) and die head temperature (160-2400C) on the textural properties of extrudates (i.e. hardness and crispiness) were analyzed using response surface methodology. Finding: Optimum parameters for highly acceptable products with 13% moisture content of feed and 3% concentration of safed muesli powder that were extruded at the screw speeds (180 rpm), barrel temperature (1880C) and die head temperature (1700C) presented the lower hardness (2.6 Kg) and higher crispiness (22). Application: Textural properties of ready to eat extrudate snacks are perceived by the final consumer as criteria of quality.


Brown Rice, Extrudate, Extrusion Cooking, Safed Muesli Powder, Textural Properties, Water Chestnut.

Full Text:

 |  (PDF views: 211)


  • Bouvier JM, Bonneville R, Goullieux A. Instrumental methods for the measurement of extrudate crispness. Agro-Food-Industry Hi-Techology. 1997; 8:16–9.
  • Mohammed AAA, Jowitt R, Brennan JG. Instrumental and sensory evaluations of crispness: 1 – in friable foods. Journal of Food Engineering. 1982; 1:55–75.
  • Stanley DW, Tung MA. Microstructure of food and its relationship to texture. Rheology and Texture in Food Quality. J. M. DeMan; P. W. Voisey; V. F. Rasper; D. W. Stanley, editors. Westport, CT: VI Publishing Co., Inc; 1976.
  • Launay B, Lisch JM. Twin-screw extrusion cooking of starches: Flow behavior of starch pastes, expansion and mechanical properties of extrudates. Journal of Food Engineering. 1983; 2(4):259–80. Liu Y, Hsieh F, Heymann H, Huff HE. Effect of processing conditions on the physical and sensory properties of extruded oat-corn puff. J Food Sci. 2000; 65:1253–9.
  • Jamora JJ, Rhee KS, Rhee KC. Chemical and sensory properties of expanded extrudates from pork meat-defatted soy flour blends with onion, carrot and oat. Journal of Food Science and Nutrition2002; 6:158–62.
  • Islam MZ, Taneya MLJ, Shams-Ud-Din M, Syduzzaman M, Hoque MM. Physicochemical and functional properties of brown rice (Oryza sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) flour and quality of composite biscuit made thereof. A Scientific Journal of Krishi Foundation. 2012; 10(2):20–8.
  • Alfasane MA, Khondker M, Rahman MM. Biochemical composition of the fruits of water chestnut (trapa bispinosa roxb). Dhaka University Journal of Biological Science. 2011; 20(1): 95–8.
  • Harper JM. Extrusion of foods. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc; 1981.
  • Huber G. Snack foods from cooking extruders. Snacks Food Processing. R. W. Lucas; L. W. Rooney, editors. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, Inc; 2001. p. 1–33.
  • Kanojia V, Singh M, Khandelwal BM, Azam M. Effect of single of screw extrusion parameters on textural properties of rice based expanded snacks enriched with Okara. Indian Jouranl of Science and Technology. 2016; 9(22).
  • Singh M. Investigations on application of extrusion cooking technology for preparation of ready to eat extruded snack from different blends of rice, maize and defatted soy-flour and safed muesli. [PhD. Thesis] Jabalpur: JNKVV; 2008.
  • Stojceska V, Ainsworth P, Plunkett A, Ibanoglu S. The effect of extrusion cooking using different water feed rates on the quality of ready-to-eat snacks made from food by-products. Food Chemistry. 2009; 114:226–32.
  • Hagenimana A, Ding X, Fang T. Evaluation of rice flour modified by extrusion cooking. Journal of Cereal Science. 2006; 43:38–46.
  • Falcone RG, Phillips RD. Effects of feed composition, feed moisture and barrel temperature on the physical and rheological properties of snack-like products prepared from cowpea and sorghum flour by extrusion. J Food Sci. 1988; 53:1464–9.
  • Kokini JL, Chang CN, Lai LS. The role of rheological properties on extrudate expansion. Food Extrusion Science and Technology. J. C. Kokini, C. R. Ho, M. V. Karwe, editors. New York: Marcel Dekker; 1992. p. 631–52.
  • Saalia FK. Physical modification of maize and cowpea and their application in traditional foods. [M. Phil Thesis]. Legon: Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Ghana; 1995.
  • Shoar ZD, Hardacre AK, Brennan CS. The physico-chemical characteristics of extruded snacks enriched with tomato lycopene. Food Chemistry. 2010; 123:1117–22.
  • Vincent JFV. The quantification of crispness. Journal of Science of Food and Agriculture. 1998; 78:162–8.
  • Vickers ZM, Bourne MC. A psychoacoustical theory of crispness. Journal of Food Science. 1976; 41:1158–64.
  • Ainsworth P, Ibanoglu S, Plunkett A, Ibanoglu E, Stojceska V. Effect of brewers spent grain addition and screw speed on the selected physical and nutritional properties of an extruded snack. Journal of Food Engineering. 2007; 81:209–702.
  • Altan A, McCarthy KL, Maskan M. Evaluation of snack foods from barley–tomato pomace blends by extrusion processing. Journal of Food Engineering. 2008; 84(2):231–42.
  • Liu Y, Hsieh F, Heymann H, Huff HE. Effect of processing conditions on the physical and sensory properties of extruded oat-corn puff. J Food Sci. 2000; 65:1253–9.
  • Seker M. Selected properties of native starch or modified maize starch/soy protein mixtures extruded at varying screw speed. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 2005; 85(7):1161–5.
  • Mercier C, Feillet P. Modification of carbohydrate components by extrusion-cooking of cereal products. Cereal Chemistry. 1975; 52:283–97.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.