Total views : 306

Exergy in Hybrid Gas Turbines- A Review


  • School of Mechanical and Building Sciences, VIT University, Chennai Campus, Vandalur Kelambakkam Road, Chennai - 600 127, Tamil Nadu, India


Objectives: A review of Exergy based analysis in Gas Turbine-Hybrid systems for power generation has been presented. The purpose of the review is to understand the work carried out earlier and to identify the areas which are not sufficiently addressed. Conventional hybrid systems like Gas Turbine-Steam Turbine systems were considered along with nonconventional systems involving fuel cells, renewable energy systems like solar hybrid, and gasifier based systems. Methods/ Statistical Analysis: It is noticed that a huge body of work is available on the Gas turbine-steam turbine systems and relatively low amount of work is available in systems involving renewable energy sources. Several end-use applications such as heat generation, chilling and electricity production is possible based on the heat availability in the gas turbine. Optimization techniques were useful in the many of the Exergo economic studies that are reported in this review article. Findings: This studies show that more exergetic destruction happened in combustion chamber and fuel cell stacks owing to the high temperatures involved. Turbine inlet temperatures, compression ratio and air fuel ratio had a major say in the exergetic efficiency of the system. Innovative techniques like steam injection, inlet fogging, partial oxidation were useful for better system efficiencies. Most researchers have pointed at the commonly known parameters like the turbine inlet temperature, compression ratio and turbine exit temperature to be crucial for better exergy performance. However, there are a few researchers who pointed at much more specific areas like the combustion chamber and the HRSG to be the culprits where most exergy destruction happens. Improvements: Various techniques of hybridization of gas turbines by conventional and renewable energy systems were suggested by different authors towards capitalizing the benefits of both the systems irrespective of irreversibilities but more work is still needed to reduce the exergy destruction which would be of immense help in improving the energy efficiency and availability of low cost energy.


Conventional, Exergy Analysis, Fuel Cells, Gas Turbine Hybrid, Non-conventional, Solar.

Full Text:

 |  (PDF views: 408)


  • Saravanamuttoo HIH, Cohen H, Rogers GFC. Gas Turbine Theory, 5th edn, Pearson Education, 2015.
  • Hiva R, Mostafa H-S, Alireza M. Industrial Twin-shaft Gas Turbine Thermodynmic Modeling for Power Generation Application at Design Point and Off-design Condition. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2016 Jan; 9(3). Doi:10.17485/ijst/2016/v9i3/77091.
  • Kini CR, Kamat H, Satish Shenoy B. Effect of Twisted Tape Inserts and Stacks on Internal Cooling of Gas Turbine Blades. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2016 Aug; 9(31). Doi: 10.17485/ijst/2016/v9i31/95978.
  • Romero JC, Linare P. Exergy as a global sustainable indicator. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2014; 33:427–42.
  • Mohamadi ZM. Evaluating Energy and Exergy Efficiencies in Transportation Sector of Iran. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2015 Jun; 8(11). Doi:10.17485/ijst/2015/v8i11/71786.
  • Sorgenfrei M, Tsatsoranis G. Detailed exergetic evaluation of heavy duty Gas turbine systems running on Natural gas and syn gas. Energy Conversion and Management. 2006; 107:43–51.
  • Ebadi MJ, Bandpy MG. Exergetic analysis of Gas turbine power plant. International Journal of Exergy. 2005; 5(2):31–8.
  • Hybrid Power generation systems Available from:, Date accessed: 10/ 09/ 2009.
  • Cengel Y, Boles M. Thermodynamics- An engineering approach, 7th edn, TMH. 2011; 1–963.
  • Bilgen E. Exergetic and engineering analysis of gas turbine based cogeneration systems. Journal of Energy. 2000; 25(12):1215–29
  • Nitul K, Sanjay S. Exergy analysis of effect of air fuel ratio and compression ratio on rational efficiency of gas/steam combined cycle. Journal of the Energy Institute. 2013; 86(1):41–8.
  • Khaljani M, Khoshbhakti R, Bahlouli K. Comprehensive analysis of energy, exergy and exergo economy of co generation of heat and power in combined Gas turbine and Organic rankine cycles. Energy Conversion and Management. 2015; 97:154–65.
  • Qiang C, Weittan W, Zheng JJ, Sui J, Jin HG. The exergy and energy level analysis of a combined cooling, heat and power system driven by a small scale gas turbine at off load conditions. Applied Thermal Energy. 2014; 66(1-2):590–602.
  • Sharma M, singh O. Exergy analysis of dual pressure HRSG for different dead states and varying steam generation rates in a Gas/Steam turbine combined cycle power plants. Applied Thermal Engineering. 2016; 93(1-3):614–22.
  • Mohammad KF, Shokati N, Mahmoudi SMS, Yari M, Rosen MA. Exergo economic assessment and parametric study of Gas turbine modular helium reactor combined with 2 Organic rankine cycles. Energy. 2014; 65:533–43.
  • Ehyaei MA, Mozafari A, Alibiglou MH. Exergy, economic and environmental analysis of inlet fogging for Gas turbine power plant. Energy. 2011; 36(12):6851–61.
  • Elwekeel NMF, Antar MM, Abdala A. Effect of mist cooling technique on exergy and energy analysis of steam injected gas turbine cycle. Applied Thermal Engineering. 2016; 98:298–309.
  • Zhang SJ, Chi JL, Xiao X. Performance analysis of a partial oxidation steam injected gas turbine cycle. Applied Thermal Engineering. 2015; 91:622–9.
  • Cassetti G, Rocco MV, Colombo E. Exergy based methods for economic, and risk design optimization of energy systems: Application to a Gas turbine. Energy. 2014; 74:269–79.
  • Memon AG, Memon RA, Harijan K, Uqaili MA. Thermo- environmental analysis of an open cycle gas turbine power plant with regression model and optimization. Journal of the Energy Institute. 2014; 87(2):81–8.
  • Ahmadi P, Enadi N, Avval HB, Dincer I. Modelling and exergo economic optimization of a gas turbine with absorption chiller using evolutionary algorithm. International Journal of Exergy. 2012; 11(1):1–18.
  • Khaliq A. Exergy analysis of gas turbine trigeneration system for combined production of power, heat and refrigeration. International Journal of Refrigeration. 2009; 32(3):534–45.
  • Sanjay S, Prasad BN. Energy and Exergy analysis of intercooled combustion-turbine based combined cycle power plant. Energy. 2013; 59:277–84.
  • Anvari S, Jafarmadar S, Khalilraya S. Proposal of a combined heat and power plant hybridized with regeneration organic rankine cycle: Energy-Exergy evaluation. Energy Conversion and Management. 2016; 122:357–65.
  • Mohammad AJ, Hossein G. Thermodynamics analysis and optimization of Abadan combined cycle power plant. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2016; 9(7). Doi: 10.17485/ijst/2016/v9i7/87770.
  • Hybrid gas turbine fuel cell systems. Available from: Library/Research/Coal/energy systems/turbines/handbook/1-4.pdf. Date accessed 14/07/2016
  • Duan L, Huang K, Zhang X, Yang Y. Comparison study on different SOFC hybrid systems with zero-CO2 emission. Energy. 2013; 58:66–77.
  • Bavarsad PG. Energy and exergy analysis of internally reforming solid oxide fuel cell- gas turbine. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 2007; 32(17):4591–9.
  • Gogoi TK, Sarmah P, Debnath D. Energy and exergy based performance analysis of a solid oxide fuel cell integrated combined cycle power plant. Energy Conversion and Management. 2014; 86:507–19.
  • Mamaghani AH, Najafi B, Alishirazi A, Rinaldi F. Exergetic, economic and environmental evaluations and multi objective optimization of a combined molten carbonate fuel cell- gas turbine system. Applied Thermal Engineering. 2015; 77:1–11.
  • Emam ERS, Dincer I. Energy and exergy analysis of a combined molten carbonate fuel cell- Gas turbine system. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 2011; 36:8927–35.
  • Spelling J. Hybrid Solar-Gas turbine power plants by James Spelling, doctoral thesis KTH, Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden. 2013; 1–279.
  • Meriche IE. SOLGATE, Solar gas turbine system, Project report. 2005; 4(1):1–9.
  • Khaldi F. Energy and Exergy analysis of the first hybrid solar- gas plant in Algeria by Fouad Khaldi, Proceedings of ECOS- International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization and Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems. Perugia, Italy. 2012. p. 26–9.
  • Meriche IE, Abdelhadi A, Eddine T. Design and performance evaluation of solar gas turbine power plant in southwestern Algeria. International Journal of Renewable Energy Research. 2014; 4(1):1–9.
  • Leon DO, Medina A, Hernandez AC. Thermodynamic modeling of a hybrid solar gas turbine power plant by Energy conversion and management. 2015; 93:435–47.
  • Ozden E, Tari I. Energy-Exergy and Thermodynamic analysis of a hybrid solar- hydrogen renewable energy system in Ankara-Turkey. Applied Thermal Engineering. 2016; 99:169–78.
  • Peng S, Hong H. Exergy analysis of solar gas turbine systems coupled with Kalina cycle. International Journal of Exergy. 2015; 18(2):192–213.
  • Khaldi F. Air bottoming cycles for hybrid solar gas plants. World renewable energy congress. Sweden. 2011; 3813–20.
  • Datta A, Ganguly R, Sarkar L. Energy and Exergy analysis of an externally fired gas turbine cycle (EFGT) cycle integrated with biomass for distributed power generation. Energy. 2010; 35(1):341–50.
  • Khanmohammadi S, Atashkari K, Kouhikamali R. Exergo economic multiobjective optimization of an externally fired gas turbine integrated with a biomass gasifier. Applied Thermal Engineering. 2015; 91:848–59.
  • Moller CB, Rokni M, Elmegaard B. Exergy analysis and optimization of a biomass gasification, solid oxide fuel cell and micro gas turbine hybrid system. Energy. 2011; 36(8):4740–52.
  • Zhang B, Liu Q, Hong H, Jin H. Thermodynamics evaluation of a solar-biomass power generation system integrated a two stage gasifier. Energy Procedia. 2016; 88:368–74.
  • Hassan A, Soltani S, Bolukbasi A, Rosen MA, Morosuk T. Comparative exergo economic analysis of the integration of biomass gasification and gas turbine power plant with and without fogging inlet cooling. Renewable Energy. 2015; 76:394–400.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.