Total views : 391

Spiritual Leadership and its Contribution to Soft Dimensions of Total Quality Management – Relevance to Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) in India

Affiliations

  • Reva University, Bangalore – 560064, Karnataka, India
  • Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, R. V. College of Engineering, Bangalore – 560059, Karnataka, India

Abstract


Micro Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) have been the backbone of Indian economy. This is because of their employment potential at low capital cost and also the ability to respond faster to unexpected development in the field of activity. In India, MSMEs contribute nearly 8% of the country’s GDP, 45% of the manufacturing output and 40% of the exports. But, over the past few years their share in GDP, manufacturing output and exports has been slowly declining. Among the various reasons for this downtrend, process inefficiencies have been identified as a major cause of concern and there is a felt need to improve on the same. The philosophy of Total Quality Management (TQM) which governs the process management and control has evolved gradually since evolution. Some of these Quality philosophies like Kaizen, Confucianism and Tao etc. based Spirituality practiced at workplace have come to stay in present day business scenarios. Spirituality contained in texts of Ancient Indian Wisdom has been adopted in various management practices across the globe and out of those the Bhagavad Gita has been a storehouse of sustainable solutions to many organizational challenges over the years. In context, Spirituality contained in the eighteen chapters of the Bhagavad Gita has many insights which could contribute to the dimensions of TQM. Leadership has been a driving dimension for TQM and has been fundamental for the other soft and hard dimensions. This research paper would capture the effect of spiritual leadership based on Bhagavad Gita and its contribution to the soft dimensions of TQM. The conceptual framework is drawn from three streams of literature: Bhagavad Gita, Workplace Spirituality and TQM. Also, this paper would contribute to the existing knowledge base by adding the concepts of Workplace Spirituality from the Bhagavad Gita to TQM literature.

Keywords

Ancient Indian Wisdom, Bhagavad Gita, Leadership, Spiritual Leadership, Soft TQM, Total Quality Management, Workplace Spirituality

Full Text:

 |  (PDF views: 392)

References


  • Wittfogel KA. Oriental Despotism: A comparative study of total power. New Haven and London: Yale University Press; 1957.
  • Dalken F. Are Porter’s five competitive forces still applicable? A critical examination concerning the relevance for today’s business. Netherlands: University of Twente; 2014.
  • Kaynak H. The relationship between Total Quality Management practices and their effects on firm performance. Journal of Operations Management. 2003; 21: 405–35.
  • Aburdene P. Megatrends-2010-The rise of conscious capitalism. Hampton Roads Publishing Company; 2007.
  • Government of India. Development Commissioner MSMEs. Available from: http://dcmsme.gov.in/ 6. Available from: http://www.iitk.ac.in/siic/d/content/microsmalland-medium-enterprises-msme
  • Recommendations of the Inter-Ministerial Committee for accelerating manufacturing in Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Sector. 2013 Sep. Available from: msme.gov. in/Accelerating Manufacturing in the MSME Sector.pdf
  • The new wave Indian MSME, KPMG-CII. 2015. Available from: https://www.kpmg.com/.../The new wave Indian MSME_Low Res....
  • Tripathi M, Tripathi S, Dedhia R. Challenges faced by MSME sector in India. International Journal for Science Technology and Management. 2016; 5(3):69–77.
  • Indian SME survey. 2014. Available from: firstbiz.firstpost. com/sme.../Analysing-Indian-SME-perceptions-aroundUnion-Budge...
  • Shifting the Paradigm: Mapping the inclusive innovation ecosystem for MSMEs.
  • Lakakis K, Savvaidis P, Ifadis I. The implementation of Quality Assurance in the Hellenic National Cadastral Projects. Athens-2000 Workshop of FIG-Com 3 Spatial Information Management-Experiences and Visions for the 21st Century; Athens, Greece. 2000 Oct 4-7.
  • Broh RA. Managing quality for higher profits: A guide for business executives and quality managers. McGraw-Hill; 1982.
  • A guide to the project management body of knowledge (PMBOK® guide). -- 5th ed. 2000. p. 227.
  • Evans JR. Quality and performance excellence. 6th ed. Delhi: Cengage Learning; 2011.
  • Besterfield DH, Besterfield-Michna C, Besterfield GH, Besterfield-Sacre M. Total Quality Management. 3rd ed. Delhi: Pearson Edition; 2007.
  • Oakland JS. TQM-Texts and Cases. 3rd ed. GB: Butterworth Heinemann; 2003.
  • Duggirala M, Rajendran C, Anantharaman RN. Providerperceived dimensions of Total Quality Management in healthcare. Benchmarking. An International Journal. 2008; 15(6):693–722.
  • Karapetrovic S. Musing on integrated management. Measuring Business Excellence. 2003; 7(1):4–13.
  • Garvin DA. Managing quality - The strategic and competitive edge. New York: Free Press; 1988.
  • Konecny PA, Thun JH. An empirical analysis of a conjoint implementation of TQM and TPM on plant performance. International Journal of Production Economics. 2011; 133(2):496–507.
  • Stevenson WJ. Operations management. 7th ed. McGrawHill International Editions; 2002.
  • Samson D, Terziovski M. The relationship between Total Quality Management
  • practices and operational performance. Journal of Operations Management. 1999; 17(4):393–409.
  • Oschman JJ, Stroh EC, Auriacombe CJ. Attitude of personnel at South African Air force bases towards a framework for the implementation of Total Quality Management(TQM) in the South African Air Force: An empirical view. Politeia Unisa Press. 2006; 25(2):131–50.
  • Lewis WG, Pun KF, Lalla TRM. Exploring soft versus hard factors for TQM implementation in small and mediumsized enterprises. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management. 2006; 55(7):539–54.
  • Ahire SL, Landeros R, Golhar DY. Total Quality Management: A literature review and an agenda for future research. Production and Operations Management. 1995; 4(3):277–306.
  • Schonberger RJ. Total Quality: Teamsmanship over Leadership. Benchmarking for Quality Management and Technology. 1994; 1(1):38–47.
  • Dale BG, Cooper CL, Wilkinson A. Managing quality and human resources - A guide to continuous improvement. Blackwell; 1997.
  • Ahire SL, O’Shaughnessy KC. The role of top management commitment in quality management: An empirical analysis of the auto parts industry. International Journal of Quality Science. 1998; 3(1):5–37.
  • Fry LW. Toward a theory of spiritual leadership. The Leadership Quarterly. 2003; 14:693–727.
  • Fry LW, Slocum J. Maximizing the triple bottom line through a strategic scorecard business model of spiritual leadership. Organizational Dynamics. 2008; 31(1):86–96.
  • Krishnan VR. The impact of transformational leadership on followers’ duty orientation and spirituality. Journal of Human Values. 2008; 14(1):11–22.
  • Tanyi RA. Towards clarification of the meaning of spirituality. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 2002; 39(5):500–9.
  • de Klerk JJ. Spirituality, meaning in life and work wellness: A research agenda. International Journal of Organizational Analysis. 2005; 13(1):64–8.
  • McKnight R. Spirituality in the workplace. Transforming Works. Miles River Press; 1984.
  • Gibbons P. Spirituality at work: Definitions, measures, assumptions and validity claim. Paper presented at the Academy of Management, Toronto; 2000.
  • Karakas F. Spirituality and performance in organizations: A literature review. Journal of Business Ethics. 2010; 94(1):89–106.
  • Mahadevan B. Spirituality in business: Sparks from the Anvil. IIMB Management Review. 2013; 25:91–103.
  • Thompson CM. The congruent life. Following the inward path of fulfilling work and inspired leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; 2000.
  • Milliman J, Czaplewski AJ, Ferguson J. Workplace spirituality and employee work attitudes - An exploratory empirical assessment. Journal of Organizational Change Management, Emerald. 2003; 16(4):426–47.
  • Dent E, Higgins ME, Wharff D. Spirituality and leadership: An empirical review of definitions, distinctions and embedded assumptions. The Leadership Quarterly. 2005; 16:625–53.
  • Singh AK, Kumar V. Spirituality and leadership. Proceedings of National Conference on Transformational Leadership and Beyond. C. S. Sharma and R. K. Singh, editors. New Delhi: Excel India Publishers; 2013. p. 14–27.
  • Reave L. Spiritual values and practices related to leadership effectiveness. The Leadership Quarterly. 2005; 16: 655–87.
  • Drath WH, Palus CJ. Approaching the future of leadership development. The center for creative leadership handbook of leadership development. C. D. McCauley, M. N. Ruderman, E. Van Velsor, editors. San Francisco: JoseyBass; 1998. p. 403–32.
  • Hee C. A holistic approach to business management: Perspectives from the Bhagavad Gita. Singapore Management Review. 2007; 29(1):73–84.
  • Thompson M. Teach yourself eastern philosophy. 2011. Available from: http://www. philosophyandethics.com 48. Tilak BG. Shrimad Bhagavad Gita rahasyaathawa karma yog shastra. Pune: Jayant Shreedhar Tilak; 1959.
  • 2016. Available from: http://www.hinduhumanrights.info/ british-army-given-a-talk-on-the-bhagavad-gita 50. Sri Aurobindo. Essays on the Gita. Sri Aurobindo Ashram; 1922.
  • Mahadevan B. Leadership lessons from Bhagavad Gita. Impact; 2012 Jul. p. 13–6.
  • Chatterjee D. Timeless Leadership - 18 Leadership Sutras from the Bhagavad Gita. Wiley India; 2013.
  • Bass BM. Transformational Leadership: Industrial, military and educational impact. State University of New York at Binghamton: Mahwah, New Jersey London Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers; 1998
  • Menon A, Krishnan VR. Transformational leadership and follower’s karma yoga – Role of followers’ gender. Journal of Indian Psychology. 2004; 22(2):50–62.
  • Bass BM. Does the transactional-transformational leadership paradigm transcend organizational and national boundaries? American Psychologis. 1997; 52(2):130–9.
  • Mulla ZR, Krishnan VR. Karma-Yoga: Construct validation using value systems and emotional intelligence. South Asian Journal of Management. 2007; 14(4):16–36.
  • Rastgar AA. The link between workplace spirituality, organizational citizenship behaviour and job performance in Iran. Arth Prabandh. A Journal for Economics and Management. 2012 Sep; 1(6):51–67.
  • Bolino MC, Turnley WH. The personal costs of citizenship behavior: The relationship between individual initiative and role overload, job stress and work-family conflict. Journal of Applied Psychology. 2005; 90:740–8.
  • Jung HS, Yoon HH. The effects of emotional intelligence on counter productive work behaviors and Organizational Citizen Behaviors among food and beverage employees in a deluxe hotel. International Journal of Hospitality Management. 2012; 31(2):369–78.
  • Chinomona E, Dhurup M. The role of organizational commitment in the organizational citizenship behavior and employee intention to stay relationship. A Case of Zimbabwe. International Journal for Humanities and Social Science. 2015; 5(7):47–58.
  • Turner J. Spirituality in the workplace. CA Magazine. 1999; 132(10):41–2.
  • Senge P. The Fifth Discipline. The art and practice of the learning organization. Crown Business; 2006.
  • Roka P. Bhagavad Gita on effective leadership: Timeless wisdom for leaders. Jaico Publishing House; 2013.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.